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Standards, Environments, Macros, Character Sets, and miscellany

       environ - user environment

       When  a  process  begins execution, one of the exec family of functions
       makes available  an  array  of  strings  called  the  environment;  see
       exec(2). By convention, these strings have the form variable=value, for
       example, PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin. These environmental variables provide  a
       way to make information about a program's environment available to pro‐

       A name can be placed in the  environment  by  the  export  command  and
       name=value  arguments  in sh(1), or by one of the exec functions. It is
       unwise to conflict with certain shell variables such as MAIL, PS1, PS2,
       and IFS that are frequently exported by .profile files; see profile(5).

       The  following  environmental variables can be used by applications and
       are expected to be set in the target runtime environment.


           The name of the user's login directory, set by  login(1)  from  the
           password file; see passwd(5).


           The  string  used  to specify internationalization information that
           allows users to work with different national conventions. The  set‐
           locale(3C) function checks the LANG environment variable when it is
           called with "" as the locale argument. LANG is used as the  default
           locale  if  the corresponding environment variable for a particular
           category is unset or null. If, however, LC_ALL is set to  a  valid,
           non-empty  value,  its  contents are used to override both the LANG
           and the other LC_* variables. For example, when invoked  as  setlo‐
           cale(LC_CTYPE,  ""),  setlocale()  queries the LC_CTYPE environment
           variable first to see if it is set and non-null. If LC_CTYPE is not
           set  or null, then setlocale() checks the LANG environment variable
           to see if it is set and non-null. If both  LANG  and  LC_CTYPE  are
           unset  or  NULL,  the  default C locale is used to set the LC_CTYPE

           Most commands invoke setlocale(LC_ALL, "") prior to any other  pro‐
           cessing. This allows the command to be used with different national
           conventions by setting the appropriate environment variables.

           The following environment variables correspond to each category  of


               If  set to a valid, non-empty string value, override the values
               of LANG and all the other LC_* variables.


               This category specifies the character collation sequence  being
               used.  The information corresponding to this category is stored
               in a database created by the localedef(1) command.  This  envi‐
               ronment variable affects strcoll(3C) and strxfrm(3C).


               This  category  specifies  character  classification, character
               conversion, and widths of multibyte characters.  When  LC_CTYPE
               is  set  to  a valid value, the calling utility can display and
               handle text and file names containing valid characters for that
               locale;  Extended UNIX Code (EUC) characters where any individ‐
               ual character can be 1, 2, or 3 bytes wide; and EUC  characters
               of  1,  2, or 3 column widths. The default C locale corresponds
               to the 7-bit ASCII character  set;  only  characters  from  ISO
               8859-1  are  valid. The information corresponding to this cate‐
               gory is stored in a database created by  the  localedef()  com‐
               mand.   This   environment   variable  is  used  by  ctype(3C),
               mblen(3C), and many commands, such as cat(1), ed(1), ls(1), and


               This  category  specifies  the language of the message database
               being used. For example, an application can  have  one  message
               database with French messages, and another database with German
               messages. Message databases are created by the  mkmsgs(1)  com‐
               mand. This environment variable is used by exstr(1), gettxt(1),
               gettxt(3C), and gettext(3C).


               This category specifies the  monetary  symbols  and  delimiters
               used  for a particular locale. The information corresponding to
               this  category  is  stored  in  a  database  created   by   the
               localedef(1)  command.  This  environment  variable  is used by


               This category specifies the decimal and  thousands  delimiters.
               The  information  corresponding to this category is stored in a
               database created by the  localedef()  command.  The  default  C
               locale corresponds to "." as the decimal delimiter and no thou‐
               sands delimiter. This environment variable is used  by  locale‐
               conv(3C), printf(3C), and strtod(3C).


               This  category specifies date and time formats. The information
               corresponding to this category is stored in a  database  speci‐
               fied  in  localedef(). The default C locale corresponds to U.S.
               date and time formats. This environment  variable  is  used  by
               many  commands  and functions; for example: at(1), calendar(1),
               date(1), strftime(3C), and getdate(3C).


           Controls which standard format message  components  fmtmsg  selects
           when   messages   are   displayed  to  stderr;  see  fmtmsg(1)  and


           A colon-separated list of network identifiers. A network identifier
           is  a  character  string used by the Network Selection component of
           the system to provide application-specific default  network  search
           paths. A network identifier must consist of non-null characters and
           must have a length of at least 1. No maximum length  is  specified.
           Network  identifiers  are normally chosen by the system administra‐
           tor. A network identifier is also the first field in any  /etc/net‐
           config  file entry. NETPATH thus provides a link into the /etc/net‐
           config file and the information about a network contained  in  that
           network's  entry. /etc/netconfig is maintained by the system admin‐
           istrator. The library routines described in  getnetpath(3C)  access
           the NETPATH environment variable.


           Contains  a sequence of templates which catopen(3C) and gettext(3C)
           use when attempting to locate message catalogs. Each template  con‐
           sists  of  an  optional  prefix, one or more substitution fields, a
           filename and an optional suffix. For example:


           defines that catopen() should look for all message catalogs in  the
           directory  /system/nlslib,  where  the  catalog name should be con‐
           structed from the name parameter passed to catopen(), %N, with  the
           suffix .cat.

           Substitution  fields  consist  of a % symbol, followed by a single-
           letter keyword. The following keywords are currently defined:


               The value of the name parameter passed to catopen().


               The value of LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


               The language element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


               The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


               The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


               A single % character.

           An empty string is substituted if the specified value is  not  cur‐
           rently  defined.  The separators "_" and "." are not included in %t
           and %c substitutions.

           Templates defined in NLSPATH are separated by colons (:). A leading
           colon  or  two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent to specifying %N.
           For example:


           indicates to catopen() that it should look for the  requested  mes‐
           sage catalog in name, name.cat and /nlslib/$LANG/name.cat. For get‐
           text(), %N automatically maps to messages.

           If NLSPATH is unset or NULL, catopen() and  gettext()  call  setlo‐
           cale(3C),  which  checks  LANG and the LC_* variables to locate the
           message catalogs.

           The extended interpretation of %L in Oracle  Solaris  includes  the
           support  for  accepted  locale  name  aliases  as described in get‐
           text(1),    gettext(3C),    catopen(3C),     setlocale(3C),     and

           The  elements  of the LANG or LC_MESSAGES environment variables are
           described using the catopen() function. For more  information,  see
           the catopen(3C) man page.

           NLSPATH  is normally be set up on a system wide basis (in /etc/pro‐
           file) and thus makes the location and naming conventions associated
           with message catalogs transparent to both programs and users.


           The  sequence  of  directory prefixes that sh(1), time(1), nice(1),
           nohup(1), and other utilities apply in searching for a  file  known
           by  an  incomplete  path name. The prefixes are separated by colons
           (:). login(1) sets PATH=/usr/bin. For more detail, see sh(1).


           Define severity levels and associate and print strings with them in
           standard format error messages; see addseverity(3C), fmtmsg(1), and


           The kind of terminal for which  output  is  to  be  prepared.  This
           information  is  used by commands, such as vi(1), which can exploit
           special capabilities of that terminal.


           Time zone information. The contents of  this  environment  variable
           are  used  by the functions ctime(3C), localtime(3C), strftime(3C),
           and mktime(3C) to override the default time zone.

           By default, this variable is not set.  When  not  set,  the  system
           default time zone of localtime is used. The data for this time zone
           can be set by either of the commands:

             zic -l timezone


             nlsadmin set-timezone timezone

           When run, those commands will update the time zone of all  programs
           relying  on  the  localtime  time  zone.  For more information, see

           If set, the value of TZ has one of the two formats (spaces inserted
           for clarity):



             std offset dst offset, rule

           If  TZ is of the first format (that is, if the first character is a
           colon (:)), or if TZ is not of the second format,  then  TZ  desig‐
           nates   a   path   to   a  time  zone  database  file  relative  to
           /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/, ignoring a leading colon if one exists.

           Otherwise, TZ is of the second form, which when expanded is as fol‐


           std and dst

               Indicate  no less than three, nor more than {TZNAME_MAX}, bytes
               that are the designation for the standard (std) or the alterna‐
               tive (dst, such as Daylight Saving Time) time zone. Only std is
               required; if dst is missing, then the alternative time does not
               apply  in  this  time  zone.  Each of these fields can occur in
               either of two formats, quoted or unquoted:

                   o      In the quoted form, the first character is the less-
                          than  ('<')  character and the last character is the
                          greater-than ('>') character. All characters between
                          these quoting characters are alphanumeric characters
                          from the  portable  character  set  in  the  current
                          locale, the plus-sign ('+') character, or the minus-
                          sign ('-') character. The std and dst fields in this
                          case do not include the quoting characters.

                   o      In the unquoted form, all characters in these fields
                          are alphabetic characters from the portable  charac‐
                          ter set in the current locale.

               The  interpretation  of  these  fields is unspecified if either
               field is less than three bytes (except for the case when dst is
               missing),  more  than  {TZNAME_MAX}  bytes,  or if they contain
               characters other than those specified.


               Indicate the value one must add to the local time to arrive  at
               Coordinated Universal Time. The offset has the form:


               The  minutes  (mm) and seconds (ss) are optional. The hour (hh)
               is required and can be a single digit. The offset following std
               is required. If no offset follows dst, daylight savings time is
               assumed to be one hour ahead of standard time. One or more dig‐
               its  can  be used. The value is always interpreted as a decimal
               number. The hour must be between 0 and 24, and the minutes (and
               seconds),  if  present,  must be between 0 and 59. Out of range
               values can cause unpredictable behavior. If preceded  by  a  -,
               the  time  zone is east of the Prime Meridian. Otherwise, it is
               west of the Prime  Meridian  (which  can  be  indicated  by  an
               optional preceding "+" sign).


               Indicate when to change to and back from daylight savings time,
               where start/time describes when the change from  standard  time
               to  daylight  savings  time occurs, and end/time describes when
               the change back occurs. Each time field describes when, in cur‐
               rent local time, the change is made.

               The formats of start and end are one of the following:


                   The  Julian day n (1 ≤ n ≤ 365). Leap days are not counted.
                   That is, in all years, February 28 is day 59 and March 1 is
                   day  60. It is impossible to refer to the occasional Febru‐
                   ary 29.


                   The zero-based Julian day (0 ≤ n  ≤  365).  Leap  days  are
                   counted, and it is possible to refer to February 29.


                   The  d^th day, (0 ≤ d ≤ 6) of week n of month m of the year
                   (1 ≤ n ≤ 5, 1 ≤ m ≤ 12), where week 5 means "the last d-day
                   in  month  m"  which  can occur in either the fourth or the
                   fifth week). Week 1 is the first week in which the d^th day
                   occurs. Day zero is Sunday.

               Implementation  specific defaults are used for start and end if
               these optional fields are not specified.

               The time has the same format as offset except that  no  leading
               sign  ("−"  or  "+")  is allowed. If time is not specified, the
               default value is 02:00:00.

       cat(1),  date(1),  ed(1),  fmtmsg(1),  localedef(1),  login(1),  ls(1),
       mkmsgs(1),  nice(1), nohup(1), sh(1), sort(1), time(1), vi(1), exec(2),
       addseverity(3C), catopen(3C), ctime(3C),  ctype(3C),  fmtmsg(3C),  get‐
       date(3C),   getnetpath(3C),  gettext(3C),  gettxt(3C),  localeconv(3C),
       mblen(3C), mktime(3C), printf(3C),  setlocale(3C),  strcoll(3C),  strf‐
       time(3C), strtod(3C), strxfrm(3C), netconfig(5), passwd(5), profile(5),
       locale_alias(7), nlsadm(8), tzreload(8), zic(8)

       The use of a null path name or dot (.) in the shell parameter  PATH  is
       strongly discouraged.

Oracle Solaris 11.4               9 Nov 2021                        environ(7)
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