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passwd(5)                        File Formats                        passwd(5)

       passwd - password file


       The  file  /etc/passwd  is a local source of information about user and
       system accounts. The password file can  be  used  in  conjunction  with
       other  naming  sources,  such as the NIS map passwd.byname or user data
       stored on an LDAP server. Programs use  the  getpwnam(3C)  routines  to
       access  this  information.  Shell  scripts use the getent(8) command to
       access this information.

       The password file is an ASCII text file that resides in the /etc direc‐
       tory.  Because  the hashed passwords on a secure system are always kept
       in the shadow(5) file, /etc/passwd has general read permission  on  all
       systems  so  it can be used by routines that map between numerical user
       IDs and user names.

       Each passwd entry is a single line of the form:



       username       is the user's login name.

                      This field accepts a string of no more  than  thirty-two
                      bytes  consisting  of  characters from the set of alpha‐
                      betic characters, numeric characters, period (.), under‐
                      score (_), and hyphen (-). The first character should be
                      alphabetic and the field should  contain  at  least  one
                      lowercase  alphabetic  character.  A  warning message is
                      displayed if these restrictions are not met.

                      This field must contain at least one character and  must
                      not contain a colon (:) or a newline (\n).

                      Login  names with an underscore (_) as the first charac‐
                      ter are reserved for use by the operating system.

       password       Obsolete. The encrypted password for the user is in  the
                      corresponding  entry  in the /etc/shadow file. pwconv(8)
                      relies on a special value of 'x' in the  password  field
                      of /etc/passwd. If this value of 'x' exists in the pass‐
                      word field of /etc/passwd, this indicates that the pass‐
                      word  for  the user is already in /etc/shadow and should
                      not be modified.

       uid            is the user's unique numerical ID for  the  system.  See
                      below for allowed and reserved values.

       gid            is  the  unique  numerical ID of the group that the user
                      belongs to.

       gecos-field    is the user's real name, along with information to  pass
                      along  in  a  mail-message  heading.  (It  is called the
                      gecos-field for historical reasons.) An '&'  (ampersand)
                      in  this field stands for the login name (in cases where
                      the login name appears in a user's real name).

       home-dir       is the pathname to the directory in which  the  user  is
                      initially positioned upon logging in.

       login-shell    is  the  user's  initial shell program. If this field is
                      empty, the default shell is /usr/bin/sh.

       The maximum value of the uid and gid fields is 2147483647. To  maximize
       interoperability  and  compatibility, administrators are recommended to
       assign users a range of UIDs and GIDs below 60000 where possible. (UIDs
       from 0-99 inclusive are reserved by the operating system vendor for use
       in future applications. Their use by end system  users  or  vendors  of
       layered products is not supported and may cause security related issues
       with future applications.)

       Blank lines are treated as malformed entries in  the  passwd  file  and
       cause consumers of the file, such as getpwnam(3C), to fail.

       Password  file  entries  beginning with a '+' (plus sign) or '−' (minus
       sign) are no longer supported and are ignored. The passwd: compat  con‐
       figuration  in  nsswitch.conf  is  no  longer  supported.  Instead, the
       pam_list  module  should  be  used.  For  more  information,  see   the
       pam_list(7) and nsswitch.conf(5) man pages.

       To  update  this file, use the passwd(1), useradm(8), useradd(8), user‐
       mod(8),  or  userdel(8)  commands;  the  pam_chauthtok(3PAM)  or  user‐
       mgr-1(3RAD) APIs; or the Oracle Solaris Account Management BUI. Entries
       for users may also be managed by user actions in a pkg(7) package.

       Directly editing the password file is not recommended. Appropriate pre‐
       cautions  must be taken to lock the /etc/passwd file against simultane‐
       ous changes if it is to be edited with a text editor, such as by  using
       the pfedit(8) command.

       Example 1 Sample passwd File

       The following is a sample passwd file:

         fred:x:508:10:& Fredericks:/home/fred:/bin/csh

       and the sample password entry from nsswitch.conf:

         passwd: files ldap

       In  this example, there are specific entries for users root and fred to
       ensure that they can login even when the system is running single-user.
       In  addition,  anyone  whose  password information is stored on an LDAP
       server will be able to login with their usual password, shell, and home

           o      /etc/nsswitch.conf

           o      /etc/passwd

           o      /etc/shadow

       chgrp(1),   chown(1),   finger(1),   groups(1),   login(1),  newgrp(1),
       passwd(1), sh(1),  crypt(3C),  getpw(3C),  getpwnam(3C),  getspnam(3C),
       putpwent(3C),  pam_chauthtok(3PAM),  usermgr-1(3RAD),  unistd.h(3HEAD),
       group(5),  hosts.equiv(5),  nsswitch.conf(5),  shadow(5),   environ(7),
       getent(8),  logins(8),  pwck(8),  pwconv(8),  su(8),  useradm(8), user‐
       add(8), userdel(8), usermod(8)

       Managing User Accounts and User Environments in Oracle Solaris 11.4

       The  solaris.user.manage  and  solaris.role.manage  authorizations  are
       required  to modify the passwd fields for users and roles respectively.
       These authorizations allow an administrator to set the  username,  uid,
       gecos-field,  home-dir,  and  login-shell  for  users and roles respec‐
       tively. Setting  the  gid  requires  the
       authorization. See group(5).

Oracle Solaris 11.4               11 May 2021                        passwd(5)
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