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close(2)                         System Calls                         close(2)

       close - close a file descriptor

       #include <unistd.h>

       int close(int fildes);

       The  close()  function  deallocates  the  file  descriptor indicated by
       fildes. To deallocate means to make the file descriptor  available  for
       return  by subsequent calls to open(2) or other functions that allocate
       file descriptors. All outstanding record locks owned by the process  on
       the  file associated with the file descriptor will be removed (that is,

       If close() is interrupted by a signal that is to  be  caught,  it  will
       return  −1  with errno set to EINTR and the state of fildes is unspeci‐
       fied. If an I/O error occurred while reading from  or  writing  to  the
       file  system  during close(), it returns -1, sets errno to EIO, and the
       state of fildes is unspecified.

       When all file descriptors associated with a pipe or FIFO  special  file
       are closed, any data remaining in the pipe or FIFO will be discarded.

       When all file descriptors associated with an open file description have
       been closed the open file description will be freed.

       If the link count of the file is 0, when all file  descriptors  associ‐
       ated  with  the file are closed, the space occupied by the file will be
       freed and the file will no longer be accessible.

       If a streams-based (see Intro(2)) fildes  is  closed  and  the  calling
       process was previously registered to receive a SIGPOLL signal (see sig‐
       nal(3C)) for events  associated  with  that  stream  (see  I_SETSIG  in
       streamio(4I)),  the  calling  process  will  be unregistered for events
       associated with the stream. The last close() for a  stream  causes  the
       stream  associated  with  fildes  to  be  dismantled. If O_NONBLOCK and
       O_NDELAY are not set and there have been  no  signals  posted  for  the
       stream, and if there is data on the module's write queue, close() waits
       up to 15 seconds (for each module and driver) for any output  to  drain
       before  dismantling  the  stream.  The time delay can be changed via an
       I_SETCLTIME  ioctl(2) request (see streamio(4I)). If the O_NONBLOCK  or
       O_NDELAY flag is set, or if there are any pending signals, close() does
       not wait for output to drain, and dismantles the stream immediately.

       If fildes is associated with one end of a pipe, the last close() causes
       a  hangup  to  occur  on the other end of the pipe. In addition, if the
       other end of the pipe has been named  by  fattach(3C),  then  the  last
       close()  forces  the  named  end  to be detached by fdetach(3C). If the
       named end has no open file descriptors  associated  with  it  and  gets
       detached, the stream associated with that end is also dismantled.

       If fildes refers to the master side of a pseudo-terminal, a SIGHUP sig‐
       nal is sent to the session leader, if any, for which the slave side  of
       the  pseudo-terminal  is  the  controlling  terminal. It is unspecified
       whether closing the master side  of  the  pseudo-terminal  flushes  all
       queued input and output.

       If  fildes refers to the slave side of a streams-based pseudo-terminal,
       a zero-length message may be sent to the master.

       When there is an  outstanding  cancelable  asynchronous  I/O  operation
       against  fildes when close() is called, that I/O operation is canceled.
       An I/O operation that is not canceled completes as if the close() oper‐
       ation  had  not yet occurred. All operations that are not canceled will
       complete as if the close() blocked until the operations completed.

       If a shared memory object or a memory mapped file remains referenced at
       the last close (that is, a process has it mapped), then the entire con‐
       tents of the memory object will persist until the memory object becomes
       unreferenced.  If this is the last close of a shared memory object or a
       memory mapped file and the close results in the memory object  becoming
       unreferenced,  and the memory object has been unlinked, then the memory
       object will be removed.

       If fildes  refers  to  a  socket,  close()  causes  the  socket  to  be
       destroyed.  If  the socket is connection-mode, and the SO_LINGER option
       is set for the socket with non-zero linger time,  and  the  socket  has
       untransmitted  data,  then  close()  will  block  for up to the current
       linger interval until all data is transmitted.

       Upon successful completion, 0 is returned. Otherwise,  −1  is  returned
       and errno is set to indicate the error.

       The close() function will fail if:

       EBADF      The fildes argument is not a valid file descriptor.

       EINTR      The close() function was interrupted by a signal.

       ENOLINK    The  fildes  argument is on a remote machine and the link to
                  that machine is no longer active.

       ENOSPC     There was no free space remaining on the  device  containing
                  the file.

       The close() function may fail if:

       EIO    An  I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file

       Example 1 Reassign a file descriptor.

       The following example closes the file descriptor associated with  stan‐
       dard  output  for  the current process, re-assigns standard output to a
       new file descriptor, and closes the original file descriptor  to  clean
       up.  This  example  assumes  that  the  file descriptor 0, which is the
       descriptor for standard input, is not closed; and that no other threads
       in  the  process  are  opening  or closing file descriptors at the same

         #include <unistd.h>
         int pfd;

       This can be achieved more simply, and  in  a  threadsafe  manner,  with

         dup2(pfd, 1);

       Example 2 Close a file descriptor.

       In  the  following  example, close() is used to close a file descriptor
       after an unsuccessful attempt is made to associate that file descriptor
       with a stream.

         #include <stdio.h>
         #include <unistd.h>
         #include <stdlib.h>

         #define LOCKFILE "/etc/ptmp"
         int pfd;
         FILE *fpfd;
         if ((fpfd = fdopen (pfd, "w")) == NULL) {

       An  application  that uses the stdio function fopen(3C) to open a file,
       or which uses the fdopen(3C) function to associate a stream with a file
       descriptor,  should  use  the  corresponding fclose(3C) function on the
       file streams returned  from  those  functions  rather  than  using  the
       close() function on the underlying file descriptor.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Interface  StabilityCommitted  _  MT-LevelAsync-Signal-
       Safe _ StandardSee standards(7).

       dup(2),  creat(2),  exec(2),  fcntl(2),  Intro(2),  ioctl(2),  open(2),
       pipe(2), fattach(3C), fclose(3C), fdetach(3C),  fopen(3C),  signal(3C),
       signal.h(3HEAD), streamio(4I), attributes(7), standards(7)

Oracle Solaris 11.4               25 Sep 2020                         close(2)
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