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ls(1)

ls(1)                            User Commands                           ls(1)



NAME
       ls - list contents of directory

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHiklLmnopqrRsStuUwvVx1@]
            [-/ c | -/v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all]
            [--block-size size] [--color[=when]] [--file-type]
            [--si] [--time-style style] [file]...


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHiklLmnopqrRsStuUwvVx1@]
            [-/ c | -/v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all]
            [--block-size size] [--color[=when]] [--file-type]
            [--si] [--time-style style] [file]...


       /usr/xpg6/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHiklLmnopqrRsStuUwvVx1@]
            [-/ c | -/v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all]
            [--block-size size] [--color[=when]] [--file-type]
            [--si] [--time-style style] [file]...


DESCRIPTION
       For  each file that is a directory, ls lists the contents of the direc‐
       tory. For each file that is an ordinary file, ls repeats its  name  and
       any other information requested. The output is sorted alphabetically by
       default. When no argument  is  given,  the  current  directory  (.)  is
       listed.  When  several  arguments  are  given,  the arguments are first
       sorted appropriately, but file arguments appear before directories  and
       their contents.


       There  are  three  major listing formats. The default format for output
       directed to a terminal is multi−column with  entries  sorted  down  the
       columns.  The  -1  option  allows  single  column output and -m enables
       stream output format. In order to determine output formats for the  -C,
       -x, and -m options, ls uses an environment variable, COLUMNS, to deter‐
       mine the number of character positions available on one output line. If
       this variable is not set, the terminfo(4) database is used to determine
       the number of columns, based on the environment variable, TERM. If this
       information  cannot  be  obtained,  80  columns  are assumed. If the -w
       option is used, the argument overrides any other column width.


       The mode printed when the -e, -E, -g, -l, -n, -o, -v, -V, or -@  option
       is  in effect consists of eleven characters. The first character can be
       one of the following:

       d

           The entry is a directory.


       D

           The entry is a door.


       l

           The entry is a symbolic link.


       b

           The entry is a block special file.


       c

           The entry is a character special file.


       p

           The entry is a FIFO (or "named pipe") special file.


       P

           The entry is an event port.


       s

           The entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket.


       −

           The entry is an ordinary file.



       The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three bits each.
       The  first  set  refers to the owner's permissions; the next to permis‐
       sions of others in the user-group of the file; and the last to all oth‐
       ers. Within each set, the three characters indicate permission to read,
       to write, and to execute the file as a  program,  respectively.  For  a
       directory,  execute  permission  is  interpreted  to mean permission to
       search the directory for a specified file. The character after  permis‐
       sions  is an ACL or extended attributes indicator. This character is an
       @ if extended attributes are associated with the file and the -@ option
       is in effect. Otherwise, this character is a plus sign (+) character if
       a non-trivial ACL is associated with the file or a space  character  if
       not.


       If  -/ and/or -% are in effect, then the extended system attributes are
       printed when filesystem supports extended system attributes.  The  dis‐
       play looks as follows:

         $ls -/ c  file
         -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                         {AHRSadim-u}

         $ls -/ v file
         -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                         {archive,hidden,readonly,system,appendonly\
                          nodump,immutable, av_modified,\
                          noav_quarantined,nounlink}

         $ls -l -% all file
         -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                         timestamp: atime    Jun 25 12:56:44 2007
                         timestamp: ctime    May 10 14:20:23 2007
                         timestamp: mtime    May 10 14:17:56 2007
                         timestamp: crtime   May 10 14:17:56 2007




       See the option descriptions of the -/ and -% option for details.


       ls  -l  (the  long  list)  prints  its  output as follows for the POSIX
       locale:

         -rwxrwxrwx+ 1 smith dev   10876  May 16 9:42 part2




       Reading from right to left, you see that the  current  directory  holds
       one  file,  named  part2. Next, the last time that file's contents were
       modified was 9:42 A.M. on May 16. The file contains 10,876  characters,
       or  bytes. The owner of the file, or the user, belongs to the group dev
       (perhaps indicating development), and his or her login name  is  smith.
       The number, in this case 1, indicates the number of links to file part2
       (see cp(1)). The plus sign indicates that there is  an  ACL  associated
       with  the  file.  If  the -@ option has been specified, the presence of
       extended attributes supersede the presence of an ACL and the plus  sign
       is  replaced  with an 'at' sign (@). Finally, the dash and letters tell
       you that user, group, and others have permissions to read,  write,  and
       execute part2.


       The execute (x) symbol occupies the third position of the three-charac‐
       ter sequence. A − in the third position would have indicated  a  denial
       of execution permissions.


       The permissions are indicated as follows:

       r       The file is readable.


       w       The file is writable.


       x       The file is executable.


       −       The indicated permission is not granted.


       s       The  set-user-ID or set-group-ID bit is on, and the correspond‐
               ing user or group execution bit is also on.


       S       Undefined bit-state (the set-user-ID or set-group-id bit is  on
               and  the user or group execution bit is off). For group permis‐
               sions, this applies only to non-regular files.


       t       The 1000 (octal) bit, or sticky bit, is on (see chmod(1)),  and
               execution is on.


       T       The 1000 bit is turned on, and execution is off (undefined bit-
               state).


   /usr/bin/ls
       l    Mandatory locking occurs during access (on  a  regular  file,  the
            set-group-ID bit is on and the group execution bit is off).


   /usr/xpg4/bin/ls and /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
       L    Mandatory  locking  occurs  during  access (on a regular file, the
            set-group-ID bit is on and the group execution bit is off).



       For user and group permissions, the third position is  sometimes  occu‐
       pied  by  a  character  other  than x or -. s or S also can occupy this
       position, referring to the state of the set-ID bit, whether it  be  the
       user's  or  the  group's. The ability to assume the same ID as the user
       during execution is, for example, used during login when you  begin  as
       root but need to assume the identity of the user you login as.


       In  the  case  of  the  sequence of group permissions, l can occupy the
       third position. l refers to mandatory file  and  record  locking.  This
       permission  describes a file's ability to allow other files to lock its
       reading or writing permissions during access.


       For others permissions, the third position can be occupied by t  or  T.
       These refer to the state of the sticky bit and execution permissions.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

   /usr/bin/ls, /usr/xpg4/bin/ls, and /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
       The following options are supported for all three versions:

       -a
       --all

           Lists all entries, including those that begin with a dot (.), which
           are normally not listed.


       -A
       --almost-all

           Lists all entries, including those that begin with a dot (.),  with
           the exception of the working directory (.) and the parent directory
           (..).


       -b
       --escape

           Forces printing of non-printable characters to be in the octal \ddd
           notation.


       -B
       --ignore-backups

           Do not display any files ending with a tilde (~).


       -c

           Uses  time  of  last modification of the i-node (file created, mode
           changed, and so forth) for sorting (-t) or printing (-l or -n).


       -C

           Multi-column output with entries sorted down the columns.  This  is
           the default output format.


       -d

           If  an  argument  is a directory, lists only its name (not its con‐
           tents). Often used with -l to get the status of a directory.


       -e

           The same as -l, except displays time to the second,  and  with  one
           format for all files regardless of age: mmm dd hh:mm:ss yyyy.


       -E

           The same as -l, except displays time to the nanosecond and with one
           format   for   all   files   regardless    of    age:    yyyy-mm-dd
           hh:mm:ss.nnnnnnnnn (ISO 8601:2000 format).

           In  addition,  this  option  displays  the  offset  from UTC in ISO
           8601:2000 standard format (+hhmm or -hhmm) or no characters if  the
           offset is indeterminable. The offset reflects the appropriate stan‐
           dard or alternate offset in force at the file's displayed date  and
           time, under the current timezone.


       -f

           Forces  each argument to be interpreted as a directory and list the
           name found in each slot. This option turns off -l, -t, -s, -S,  and
           -r, and turns on -a. The order is the order in which entries appear
           in the directory.


       -F
       --classify

           Append a symbol after certain types of files to indicate  the  file
           type. The following symbols are used:

           /    Directory


           >    Door file


           |    Named pipe (FIFO)


           @    Symbolic link


           =    Socket


           *    Executable



       -g

           The same as -l, except that the owner is not printed.


       -h
       --human-readable

           All  sizes are scaled to a human readable format, for example, 14K,
           234M, 2.7G, or 3.0T. Scaling is done by  repetitively  dividing  by
           1024. The last --si or -h option determines the divisor used.


       -H
       --dereference-command-line

           If an argument is a symbolic link that references a directory, this
           option evaluates the file information and file type of  the  direc‐
           tory  that  the  link  references,  rather  than  those of the link
           itself. However, the name of the link is displayed, rather than the
           referenced directory.


       -i
       --inode

           For  each file, prints the i-node number in the first column of the
           report.


       -k

           All sizes are printed in kbytes. Equivalent to --block-size=1024.


       -l

           Lists in long format, giving mode, ACL indication, number of links,
           owner, group, size in bytes, and time of last modification for each
           file (see above). If the file is a special  file,  the  size  field
           instead contains the major and minor device numbers. If the time of
           last modification is greater than six months ago, it  is  shown  in
           the format `month date year' for the POSIX locale. When the LC_TIME
           locale category is not set to the POSIX locale, a different  format
           of  the  time  field  can be used. Files modified within six months
           show `month date time'. If the file is a symbolic link,  the  file‐
           name is printed followed by "→" and the path name of the referenced
           file.


       -L
       --dereference

           If an argument is a symbolic link, this option evaluates  the  file
           information  and  file  type of the file or directory that the link
           references, rather than those of the link itself. However, the name
           of the link is displayed, rather than the referenced file or direc‐
           tory.


       -m

           Streams output format. Files are listed across the page,  separated
           by commas.


       -n
       --numeric-uid-gid

           The same as -l, except that the owner's UID and group's GID numbers
           are printed, rather than the associated character strings.


       -o
       --no-group

           The same as -l, except that the group is not printed.


       -p

           Puts a slash (/) after each filename if the file is a directory.


       -q
       --hide-control-chars

           Forces printing of non-printable characters in file  names  as  the
           character question mark (?).


       -r
       --reverse

           Reverses the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic, oldest first,
           or smallest file size first as appropriate.


       -R
       --recursive

           Recursively lists subdirectories encountered.


       -s
       --size

           Indicate the total number of file system blocks  consumed  by  each
           file displayed.


       -S

           Sort by file size (in decreasing order) and for files with the same
           size by file name (in increasing alphabetic order) instead of  just
           by name.


       -t

           Sorts  by time stamp (latest first) instead of by name. The default
           is the last modification time. See -c, -u and -%.


       -u

           Uses time of last access instead of last modification  for  sorting
           (with the -t option) or printing (with the -l option).


       -U

           Output is unsorted.


       -v

           The same as -l, except that verbose ACL information is displayed as
           well as the -l output. ACL information is  displayed  even  if  the
           file or directory doesn't have an ACL.


       -V

           The  same  as  -l, except that compact ACL information is displayed
           after the -l output.

           The -V option is only applicable to file systems that support NFSv4
           ACLs, such as the Solaris ZFS file system.

           The format of the displayed ACL is as follows:

             entry_type : permissions : inheritance_flags : access_type


           entry_type is displayed as one of the following:

           user:username

               Additional user access for username.


           group:groupname

               Additional group access for group groupname.


           owner@

               File owner.


           group@

               File group owner.


           everyone@

               Everyone  access,  including  file  owner and file group owner.
               This is not equivalent to the POSIX other class.

           The following permissions, supported by the NFSv4  ACL  model,  are
           displayed by using the -v or -V options:

           read_data (r)

               Permission to read the data of a file.


           list_directory (r)

               Permission to list the contents of a directory.


           write_data (w)

               Permission to modify a file's data. anywhere in the file's off‐
               set range.


           add_file (w)

               Permission to add a new file to a directory.


           append_data (p)

               The ability to modify a file's data, but only starting at EOF.


           add_subdirectory (p)

               Permission to create a subdirectory to a directory.


           read_xattr (R)

               Ability to read the extended attributes of a file.


           write_xattr (W)

               Ability to create extended attributes or write to the  extended
               attribute directory.


           execute (x)

               Permission to execute a file.


           read_attributes (a)

               The ability to read basic attributes (non-ACLs) of a file.


           write_attributes (A)

               Permission to change  basic attributes (non-ACLs) of a file.


           delete (d)

               Permission to delete a file.


           delete_child (D)

               Permission to delete a file within a directory.


           read_acl (c)

               Permission to read the ACL of a file.


           write_acl (C)

               Permission to write the ACL of a file.


           write_owner (o)

               Permission to change the owner of a file.


           synchronize (s)

               Permission  to  access  file locally at server with synchronize
               reads and writes.


           -

               No permission granted

           The following inheritance flags, supported by the NFSv4 ACL  model,
           are displayed by using the -v or -V options:

           file_inherit (f)

               Inherit to all newly created files.


           dir_inherit (d)

               Inherit to all newly created directories.


           inherit_only (i)

               When placed on a directory, do not apply to the directory, only
               to newly created files and directories. This flag requires that
               either file_inherit and or dir_inherit is also specified.


           no_propagate (n)

               Indicates  that ACL entries should be inherited to objects in a
               directory, but inheritance should  stop  after  descending  one
               level.  This  flag is dependent upon either file_inherit and or
               dir_inherit also being specified.


           successful_access (S)

               Indicates if an alarm or audit record should be initiated  upon
               successful accesses. Used with audit/alarm ACE types.


           failed_access (F)

               Indicates  if an alarm or audit record should be initiated when
               access fails. Used with audit/alarm ACE types.


           inherited (I)

               ACE was inherited.


           -

               No permission granted.

           access_type is displayed as one of the following types:

           alarm    Permission field that specifies  permissions  that  should
                    trigger an alarm.


           allow    Permission field that specifies allow permissions.


           audit    Permission field that specifies permissions that should be
                    audited.


           deny     Permission field that specifies deny permissions.

           For example:

             $ ls -dV /sandbox/dir.1
               drwxr-xr-x+  2 root     root           2 Jan 17 15:09 dir.1
                               user:marks:r-------------:fd-----:allow
                                   owner@:--------------:-------:deny
                                   owner@:rwxp---A-W-Co-:-------:allow
                                   group@:-w-p----------:-------:deny
                                   group@:r-x-----------:-------:allow
                                everyone@:-w-p---A-W-Co-:-------:deny
                                everyone@:r-x---a-R-c--s:-------:allow
             $
                                        ||||||||||||||||:||||||+ inherited access
                                          ||||||||||||||:||||||+ failed access
                                          ||||||||||||||:|||||+--success access
                                          ||||||||||||||:||||+-- no propagate
                                          ||||||||||||||:|||+--- inherit only
                                          ||||||||||||||:||+---- directory inherit
                                          ||||||||||||||:|+----- file inherit
                                          ||||||||||||||
                                          ||||||||||||||+ sync
                                          |||||||||||||+- change owner
                                          ||||||||||||+-- write ACL
                                          |||||||||||+--- read ACL
                                          ||||||||||+---- write extended attributes
                                          |||||||||+----- read extended attributes
                                          ||||||||+------ write attributes
                                          |||||||+------- read attributes
                                          ||||||+-------- delete child
                                          |||||+--------- delete
                                          ||||+---------- append
                                          |||+----------- execute
                                          ||+------------ write data
                                          |+------------- read data




       -w cols
       --width cols

           Multi-column output where the column width is forced to cols.


       -x

           Multi-column output with entries sorted across rather than down the
           page.


       -1

           Prints one entry per line of output.


       -@

           The  same  as  -l, except that extended attribute information over‐
           rides ACL information. An @ is displayed after the file  permission
           bits for files that have extended attributes.


       -/

           The  -/ option supports two option arguments c (compact mode) and v
           (verbose mode). Displays the long listing, same as -l. In addition,
           displays  the  extended  system attributes associated with the file
           when extended system attributes are fully supported by the underly‐
           ing file system.

           appendonly

               Allows  a  file  to be modified only at offset EOF. Attempts to
               modify a file at a location other than EOF fails with EPERM.


           archive

               Indicates if a file has been modified since it was last  backed
               up. Whenever the modification time (mtime) of a file is changed
               the archive attribute is set.


           av_modified

               ZFS sets the anti-virus attribute which whenever a file's  con‐
               tent or size changes or when the file is renamed.


           av_quarantined

               Anti-virus software sets to mark a file as quarantined.


           crtime

               Timestamp when a file is created.


           hidden

               Marks a file as hidden.


           immutable

               Prevents  the  content of a file from being modified. Also pre‐
               vents all metadata changes, except  for  access  time  updates.
               When  placed on a directory, prevents the deletion and creation
               of files in the directories. Attempts to modify the content  of
               a  file  or  directory  marked  as  immutable  fail with EPERM.
               Attempts to modify any attributes (with the exception of access
               time  and, with the proper privileges, the immutable) of a file
               marked as immutable fails with EPERM.


           nodump

               Solaris systems have no special semantics for this attribute.


           nounlink

               Prevents a  file  from  being  deleted.  On  a  directory,  the
               attribute  also  prevents  any  changes  to the contents of the
               directory. That is,  no  files  within  the  directory  can  be
               removed or renamed. The errno EPERM is returned when attempting
               to unlink or rename files and directories that  are  marked  as
               nounlink.


           readonly

               Marks a file as readonly. Once a file is marked as readonly the
               content data of the file cannot be modified. Other metadata for
               the file can still be modified.


           sparse

               This  attribute is available to users and applications to indi‐
               cate that a file can be interpreted  as  sparse.  It  does  not
               indicate  whether or not the file is actually sparse and it has
               no special semantics  on  the  Solaris  operating  system.  The
               sparse  attribute  will  be cleared if the file is truncated to
               zero length.


           system

               Solaris systems have no special semantics for this attribute.


           sensitive

               Some Solaris utilities may take different actions based on this
               attribute.  For  example,  not  recording  the contents of such
               files in administrative logs.




       The display characters used in compact mode (-/ c) are as follows:

         Attribute Name     Display
         archive            A
         hidden             H
         readonly           R
         system             S
         appendonly         a
         nodump             d
         immutable          i
         av_modified        m
         av_quarantined     q
         sparse             s
         nounlink           u
         sensitive          T




       The display in verbose mode (/ v) uses full attribute names when it  is
       set and the name prefixed by 'no' when it is not set.


       The  attribute  name crtime and all other timestamps are handled by the
       option -% with the respective timestamp option arguments and also  with
       all  option argument. The display positions are as follows: The display
       in verbose mode (-/ v) uses full attribute names  when it  is  set  and
       the  name  prefixed by no when it is not set. The attribute name crtime
       and all other timestamps are handled by the option -% with the  respec‐
       tive timestamp option arguments and also with all option argument.


       The display positions are as follows:

         {||||||||||}
          |||||||||||||+T (sensitive)
          |||||||||||+- s (sparse)
          ||||||||||+-- O (offline)
          |||||||||+--- u (nounlink)
          ||||||||+---- q (av_quarantined)
          |||||||+----- m (av_modified)
          ||||||+------ i (immutable)
          |||||+------- d (nodump)
          ||||+-------- a (appendonly)
          |||+--------- S (system)
          ||+---------- R (readonly)
          |+----------- H (hidden)
          +------------ A (archive)



         -% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all



       atime

           Equivalent to -u.


       crtime

           Uses the creation time of the file for sorting or printing.


       ctime

           Equivalent to -c.


       mtime

           Uses the last modification time of the file contents for sorting or
           printing.



       If extended system attributes are not supported or if the user does not
       have read permission on the file or if the crtime extended attribute is
       not set, crtime is treated as a synonym for mtime.


       When option argument -all is specified, all  available  timestamps  are
       printed  which includes -atime, -ctime, -mtime and on the extended sys‐
       tem attribute supporting  file  systems,  -crtime  (create  time).  The
       option -% all does not effect which timestamp is displayed in long for‐
       mat and does not affect sorting.

       --block-size size

           Display sizes in multiples of size. Size can be scaled by suffixing
           one of YyZzEePpTtGgMmKk. Additionally, a B can be placed at the end
           to indicate powers of 10 instead of 2. For example,  .  10mB  means
           blocks  of  10000000  bytes  while  10m  means blocks of 10*2^20 --
           10485760 -- bytes. This is mutually exclusive with the -h option.


       --color [=when]
       --colour[=when]

           Display filenames using color on color-capable terminals.  when  is
           an optional argument that determines when to display color output.

           Possible values for when are:

           always
           yes
           force

               Always use color.


           auto
           tty
           if-tty

               Use color if a terminal is present.


           no
           never
           none

               Never use color. This is the default

           See the Color Output section of this manual page for information on
           how to control the output colors.


       --file-type

           Display a suffix after a file depending on it's  type,  similar  to
           the -F option, except * is not appended to executable files.


       --si

           Display  human scaled sizes similar to the -h option, except values
           are repeatedly divided by 1000 instead of  1024.  The  last  option
           --si or -h determines the divisor used.


       --time-style style

           Display  times  using the specified style. This does not effect the
           times displayed for extended attributes (-%).

           Possible values for style are:

           full-iso

               Equivalent to -E.


           long-iso

               Display in YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM for all files.


           iso

               Display older files using YYYY-MM-DD and newer files with MM-DD
               HH:MM.


           locale

               Use  the  default  locale format for old and new files. This is
               the default.


           +FORMAT

               Use a custom format. Values are the same as described in  strf‐
               time(3C). If a NEWLINE appears in the string, the first line is
               used for older files and the second  line  is  used  for  newer
               files. Otherwise, the given format is used for all files.



   /usr/bin/ls
       -F

           Marks  directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a trailing
           greater-than sign (>), executable files with  a  trailing  asterisk
           (*),  FIFOs with a trailing vertical bar (|), symbolic links with a
           trailing "at" sign (@), and AF_UNIX address family sockets  with  a
           trailing equals sign (=). Follows symlinks named as operands.


       --file-type

           Marks  entries  as  with -F with the exception of executable files.
           Executable files are not marked. Follows symlinks  named  as  oper‐
           ands.



       Specifying  more  than  one  of  the  options in the following mutually
       exclusive pairs is not considered an error: -C and -l (ell), -m and  -l
       (ell),  -x  and  -l (ell), -@ and -l (ell). The -l option overrides the
       other option specified in each pair.


       Specifying more than one of  the  options  in  the  following  mutually
       exclusive  groups  is  not considered an error: -C and -1 (one), -H and
       -L, -c and -u, and -e and -E, and -t and -S. The last option specifying
       a  specific  timestamp  (-c, -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -%
       mtime) determines the timestamps used for sorting  or  in  long  format
       listings.  The  last option -t, -S, or -U determines the sorting behav‐
       ior.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/ls
       -F

           Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a  trailing
           greater-than  sign  (>),  executable files with a trailing asterisk
           (*), FIFOs with a trailing vertical bar (|), symbolic links with  a
           trailing  "at"  sign (@), and AF_UNIX address family sockets with a
           trailing equals sign (=). Follows symlinks named as operands.


       --file-type

           Marks entries as with -F with the exception  of  executable  files.
           Executable  files  are  not marked. Follows symlinks named as oper‐
           ands.



       Specifying more than one of the options  in  the  following  groups  of
       mutually exclusive options is not considered an error: -C and -l (ell),
       -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and -l (ell), -C and -1 (one),  -H
       and  -L, -c and -u, -e and -E, -t and -S and -U. The last option speci‐
       fying a specific timestamp (-c, -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and
       -%  mtime) determines the timestamps used for sorting or in long format
       listings. The last -t, -S, or -U option determines the  sorting  behav‐
       ior.

   /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
       -F

           Marks  directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a trailing
           greater-than sign (>), executable files with  a  trailing  asterisk
           (*),  FIFOs with a trailing vertical bar (|), symbolic links with a
           trailing "at" sign (@), and AF_UNIX address family sockets  with  a
           trailing  equals  sign (=). Does not follow symlinks named as oper‐
           ands unless the -H or -L option is specified.


       --file-type

           Marks entries as with -F with the exception  of  executable  files.
           Executable  files are not marked. Does not follow symlinks named as
           operands unless the -H or -L option is specified.



       Specifying more than one of  the  options  in  the  following  mutually
       exclusive  pairs  is  not  considered  an error: -C and -l (ell), m and
       -l(ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and -l (ell), -C and -1 (one), -H and --L,
       -c  and  -u,  -e and -E, -t and -S and -U. The last option specifying a
       specific timestamp (-c, -u, -% atime , -%  crtime,  -%  ctime,  and  -%
       mtime)  determines  the  timestamps  used for sorting or in long format
       listings. The last -t, -S, or -U option determines the  sorting  behav‐
       ior.

OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       file

           A  path  name of a file to be written. If the file specified is not
           found, a diagnostic message is output on standard error.


COLOR OUTPUT
       If color output is  enabled,  the  environment  variable  LS_COLORS  is
       checked.   If  it  exists,  its contents are used to control the colors
       used to display filenames.  If it is not set, a default list of  colors
       is used. The format of LS_COLORS is a colon separated list of attribute
       specifications.  Each attribute specification is of the format

         filespec=attr[;attr..]




       filespec is either of the form *.SUFFIX, for example, *.jar or *.Z,  or
       one of the following file types:

       no                          Normal file


       fi                          Regular file


       di                          Directory


       ln                          Symbolic link


       pi                          FIFO or named pipe


       so                          Socket


       do                          Door file


       bd                          Block device


       cd                          Character device


       ex                          Execute  bit (either user, group, or other)
                                   set


       po                          Event port


       st                          Sticky bit set


       or                          Orphaned symlink


       sg                          setgid binary


       su                          setuid binary


       ow                          world writable


       tw                          Sticky bit and world writable



       attr is a semicolon delimited list  of  color  and  display  attributes
       which are combined to determine the final output color. Any combination
       of attr values can be specified. Possible attr values are:

       00                          All attributes off (default terminal color)


       01                          Display text in bold


       04                          Display text with an underscore


       05                          Display text in bold


       07                          Display text with foreground and background
                                   colors reversed


       08                          Display using concealed text.



       One of the following values can be chosen. If multiple values are spec‐
       ified, the last specified value is used.

       30                          Set foreground to black.


       31                          Set foreground to red.


       32                          Set foreground to green.


       33                          Set foreground to yellow.


       34                          Set foreground to blue.


       35                          Set foreground to magenta (purple).


       36                          Set foreground to cyan.


       37                          Set foreground to white.


       39                          Set foreground to default terminal color.



       One of the following can be specified. If multiple  values  are  speci‐
       fied, the last value specified is used.

       40                          Set foreground to black.


       41                          Set foreground to red.


       42                          Set foreground to green.


       43                          Set foreground to yellow.


       44                          Set foreground to blue.


       45                          Set foreground to magenta (purple).


       46                          Set foreground to cyan.


       47                          Set foreground to white.


       49                          Set foreground to default terminal color.



       On  some  terminals,  setting  the bold attribute causes the foreground
       colors to be high-intensity, that is, brighter. In such cases the  low-
       intensity yellow is often displayed as a brown or orange color.


       At least one attribute must be listed for a file specification.


       The  appropriate  color codes are chosen by selecting the most specific
       match, starting with the file suffixes and  proceeding  with  the  file
       types  until  a  match  is found. The no (normal file) type matches any
       file.

USAGE
       See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of ls when encoun‐
       tering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Viewing File Permissions


       The following example shows how to display detailed information about a
       file.


         % ls -l file.1
         -rw-r--r--   1 gozer    staff     206663 Mar 14 10:15 file.1




       The permissions string above (-rw-r--r--) describes that the file owner
       has  read and write permissions, the owning group has read permissions,
       and others have read permissions.



       The following example shows how to display detailed information about a
       directory.


         % ls -ld test.dir
         drwxr-xr-x   2 gozer    staff          2 Mar 14 10:17 test.dir




       The  permissions string above (drwxr-xr-x) describes that the directory
       owner has read, write, and search permissions,  the  owning  group  has
       read  and  search  permissions, and others have read and search permis‐
       sions.



       Another example of listing file permissions is as follows:


         % ls -l file.2
         -rw-rwl---   1 gozer    staff     206663 Mar 14 10:47 file.2




       The permissions string above (-rw-rwl---) describes that the file owner
       has  read  and  write  permissions, the owning group has read and write
       permissions, and the file can be locked during access.


       Example 2 Displaying ACL Information on Files and Directories


       The following example shows how to display verbose ACL information on a
       ZFS file.


         % ls -v file.1
         -rw-r--r--   1 marks    staff     206663 Mar 14 10:15 file.1
              0:owner@:execute:deny
              1:owner@:read_data/write_data/append_data/write_xattr/write_attributes
                   /write_acl/write_owner:allow
              2:group@:write_data/append_data/execute:deny
              3:group@:read_data:allow
              4:everyone@:write_data/append_data/write_xattr/execute/write_attributes
                   /write_acl/write_owner:deny
              5:everyone@:read_data/read_xattr/read_attributes/read_acl/synchronize
                   :allow




       The following example shows how to display compact ACL information on a
       ZFS  directory.


         % ls -dV test.dir
         drwxr-xr-x   2 marks    staff          2 Mar 14 10:17 test.dir
                     owner@:--------------:------:deny
                     owner@:rwxp---A-W-Co-:------:allow
                     group@:-w-p----------:------:deny
                     group@:r-x-----------:------:allow
                     everyone@:-w-p---A-W-Co-:------:deny
                     everyone@:r-x---a-R-c--s:------:allow




       The following example illustrates the ls -v behavior when  listing  ACL
       information on a UFS file.


         $ ls -v file.3
         -rw-r--r--   1 root     root        2703 Mar 14 10:59 file.3
              0:user::rw-
              1:group::r--               #effective:r--
              2:mask:r--
              3:other:r--



       Example 3 Printing the Names of All Files


       The  following  example  prints  the  names of all files in the current
       directory, including those that begin with a dot (.), which normally do
       not print:


         example% ls -a



       Example 4 Providing File Information


       The following example provides file information:


         example% ls -aisn




       This  command  provides  information on all files, including those that
       begin with a dot (a), the i-number, the memory address  of  the  i-node
       associated  with the file—printed in the left-hand column (i); the size
       (in blocks) of the files, printed in the column to the right of the  i-
       numbers (s); finally, the report is displayed in the numeric version of
       the long list, printing the UID (instead of user name) and GID (instead
       of group name) numbers associated with the files.



       When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a total count of
       blocks, including indirect blocks, is printed.


       Example 5 Providing Extended System Attributes Information

         example% ls -/ c file    (extended system attribute in compact mode)
         -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                                  {AHRSadim-u}




       In this example, av_quarantined is not set.

         example% ls -/ v file (extended system attribute in verbose mode)
         -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                         {archive,hidden,readonly,system,appendonly\
                          nodump,immutable,av_modified,\
                          noav_quarantined,nounlink}

         example% ls -/ v file     (no extended system attribute)
         -rw-r--r--  1 root    staff        0 May 16 14:48 file
                        {}

         example% ls -/ c file        (extended system attribute
                                       supported file system)

         -rw-r--r--  1 root staff        3 Jun  4 22:04 file
                        {A------m--}




       archive and av_modified attributes are set by default on   an  extended
       system attribute supported file.

         example% ls -/ c  -%crtime file

         -rw-r--r--    root     root          0 May 10 14:17 file
                        {AHRSadim-u}




       This example displays the timestamp as the creation time:

         example% ls -l -%all file
         -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17    file
                         timestamp: atime    Jun 14 08:47:37 2007
                         timestamp: ctime    May 10 14:20:23 2007
                         timestamp: mtime    May 10 14:17:56 2007
                         timestamp: crtime   May 10 14:17:56 2007

         example% ls -%crtime -tl file*

         -rw-r--r--   1 foo      staff          3 Jun  4 22:04 file1
         -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
         -rw-r--r--   1 foo      staff          0 May  9 13:49 file.1




       In this example the files are sorted by creation time.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of ls: LANG,  LC_ALL,  LC_COLLATE,  LC_CTYPE,
       LC_TIME, LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TZ.

       COLUMNS                     Determines   the  user's  preferred  column
                                   position width for writing  multiple  text-
                                   column  output. If this variable contains a
                                   string representing a decimal integer,  the
                                   ls  utility  calculates  how many path name
                                   text columns to write (see -C) based on the
                                   width provided. If COLUMNS is not set or is
                                   invalid, 80 is used. The column width  cho‐
                                   sen  to  write  the  names  of files in any
                                   given directory is constant. File names are
                                   not  be  truncated to fit into the multiple
                                   text-column output.


       LS_COLORS                   Determines the coloring  scheme  used  when
                                   displaying  color  output.  If  not set and
                                   color output is specified, a default scheme
                                   is  used. If TERM is not set, no color out‐
                                   put is used.


       TERM                        Determine the terminal type. If this  vari‐
                                   able  is  unset or NULL, no color output is
                                   generated regardless of the  value  of  the
                                   --color option.


EXIT STATUS
       0     All information was written successfully.


       >0    An error occurred.


FILES
       /etc/group

           group IDs for ls -l and ls -g


       /etc/passwd

           user IDs for ls -l and ls -o


       /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/*

           terminal information database


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/ls
       tab()   box;   cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)  |lw(2.75i)  ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/core-os  _  CSIEnabled  _
       Interface StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee below.



       For  all  options  except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, U -v, -V, -@, -/, -%,
       --all,  --almost-all,  --block-size,  --classify,  --color,   --colour,
       --dereference,   --dereference-command-line,   --escape,   --file-type,
       --full-time, --human-readable, --ignore-backups,  --inode,  --no-group,
       --numeric-uid-gid,  --reverse,  --recursive,  --si, --size, and --time-
       style, see standards(5).

   /usr/xpg4/bin/ls
       tab()  box;  cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)   |lw(2.75i)   ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _ Availabilitysystem/xopen/xcu4 _ CSIEnabled _
       Interface StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee below.



       For all options except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, U -v, -V,  -@,  -/,  -%,
       --all,   --almost-all,  --block-size,  --classify,  --color,  --colour,
       --dereference,   --dereference-command-line,   --escape,   --file-type,
       --full-time,  --human-readable,  --ignore-backups, --inode, --no-group,
       --numeric-uid-gid, --reverse, --recursive, --si,  --size,  and  --time-
       style, see standards(5).

   /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
       tab()   box;   cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)  |lw(2.75i)  ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/xopen/xcu6 _  CSIEnabled  _
       Interface StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee below.



       For  all  options  except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, U -v, -V, -@, -/, -%,
       --all,  --almost-all,  --block-size,  --classify,  --color,   --colour,
       --dereference,   --dereference-command-line,   --escape,   --file-type,
       --full-time, --human-readable, --ignore-backups,  --inode,  --no-group,
       --numeric-uid-gid,  --reverse,  --recursive,  --si, --size, and --time-
       style, see standards(5).

SEE ALSO
       chmod(1), cp(1), setfacl(1), fgetattr(3C),  strftime(3C),  terminfo(4),
       acl(5),   attributes(5),  environ(5),  fsattr(5),  largefile(5),  stan‐
       dards(5)

NOTES
       Unprintable characters in file names can confuse  the  columnar  output
       options.


       The  total  block  count is incorrect if there are hard links among the
       files.


       The sort order of ls output is affected by the locale and can be  over‐
       ridden  by the LC_COLLATE environment variable. For example, if LC_COL‐
       LATE equals C, dot files appear first, followed by names beginning with
       upper-case  letters,  then  followed by names beginning with lower-case
       letters. But if LC_COLLATE equals en_US.ISO8859-1, then leading dots as
       well as case are ignored in determining the sort order.



SunOS 5.11                        20 Nov 2013                            ls(1)
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