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System Administration Commands                                       inetd(1M)

       inetd  -  Solaris Management Facility delegated restarter for inet ser‐

       inetd  [configuration-file] start |  stop |  refresh


       inetd is the delegated restarter for internet services for the  Service
       Management  Facility  (SMF).  Its  basic responsibilities are to manage
       service states in response to administrative requests, system failures,
       and  service  failures;  and,  when  appropriate, to listen for network
       requests for services.

       Services are no longer managed by editing the inetd configuration file,
       inetd.conf(4).  Instead, you use inetconv(1M) to convert the configura‐
       tion file content into SMF format services, then manage these  services
       using  inetadm(1M) and svcadm(1M). Once a service has been converted by
       inetconv, any changes to the legacy data in the inetd config file  will
       not  become effective. However, inetd does alert the administrator when
       it notices change in the configuration file. See the start  description
       under the "inetd Methods" section for further information.

       Also  note  that  the current inetd cannot be run from outside the SMF.
       This means it cannot be run from the command line, as was supported  by
       the  previous  inetd.  If  you attempt to do this, a message is sent to
       stderr displaying mappings between the options supported by the  previ‐
       ous inetd to the SMF version of inetd.

       inetd  listens  for  connections  on behalf of all services that are in
       either the online or degraded state. A  service  enters  one  of  these
       states  when  the  service  is enabled by the user and inetd manages to
       listen on its behalf. A listen  attempt  can  fail  if  another  server
       (whether  standalone or a third-party internet service) is already lis‐
       tening on the same port. When this occurs, inetd  logs  this  condition
       and continues trying to bind to the port at configured intervals a con‐
       figured number of times. See the property bind_fail_max under  "Service
       Properties," below, for more details.

       The  configuration  of all inetd's managed SMF services is read when it
       is started. It is reread when  inetd  is  refreshed,  which  occurs  in
       response  to  an  SMF request, or when it receives a SIGHUP signal. See
       the refresh description under "inetd Methods" for the behavior on  con‐
       figuration refresh.

       You  can use the inetadm(1M) or svccfg(1M) utilities to make configura‐
       tion changes to Internet services within the  SMF  repository.  inetadm
       has  the advantage over svccfg in that it provides an Internet/RPC ser‐
       vice context.

   Service States
       As part of its service management  duties,  inetd  implements  a  state
       machine  for  each  of its managed services. The states in this machine
       are made up of the smf(5) set of states. The semantics of these  states
       are as follows:


           inetd has yet to process this service.


           The  service is handling new network requests and might have exist‐
           ing connections active.


           The service has entered this state because it was  able  to  listen
           and process requests for some, but not all, of the protocols speci‐
           fied for the service, having exhausted its listen retries. Existing
           network connections might be active.


           Connections might be active, but no new requests are being handled.
           This is a transient state. A service might be offline  for  any  of
           the following reasons:

               o      The service's dependencies are unmet. When its dependen‐
                      cies become met the service's state  will  be  re-evalu‐

               o      The  service has exceeded its configured connection rate
                      limit, max_con_rate. The service's state is re-evaluated
                      when  its  connection  offline  timer, con_rate_offline,

               o      The service has reached its  allowed  number  of  active
                      connections, max_copies. The service's state is re-eval‐
                      uated when the number of active connections drops  below

               o      inetd  failed  to listen on behalf of the service on all
                      its protocols. As mentioned above, inetd retries up to a
                      configured maximum number of times, at configured inter‐
                      vals.The service's state is re-evaluated when  either  a
                      listen  attempt  is  successful  or  the  retry limit is


           The service has been turned off by an administrator, is not accept‐
           ing  new  connections, and has none active. Administrator interven‐
           tion is required to exit this state.


           A service is in this state because it is either malfunctioning  and
           needs  adminstrator  attention  or  because  an  administrator  has
           requested it.

           Events constituting malfunctioning include:  inetd's  inability  to
           listen on behalf on any of the service's protocols before exceeding
           the service's bind retry limit, non-start  methods  returning  with
           non-success  return  values,  and the service exceeding its failure

           You request the maintenance state to  perform  maintenance  on  the
           service,  such  as applying a patch. No new requests are handled in
           this state, but existing connections might be active. Administrator
           intervention is required to exit this state.

       Use inetadm(1M) to obtain the current state of a managed service.

   Service Methods
       As  part  of certain state transitions inetd will execute, if supplied,
       one of a set of methods provided by the service. The set  of  supported
       methods are:


           Executed  to  handle  a  request for an online or degraded service.
           Since there is no separate state  to  distinguish  a  service  with
           active  connections, this method is not executed as part of a state


           Executed when a service is taken from the online or degraded  state
           to  the  offline state. For a wait-type service that at the time of
           execution is performing  its  own  listening,  this  method  should
           result in it ceasing listening. This method will be executed before
           the disable method in the case an online/degraded service  is  dis‐
           abled.  This  method  is required to be implemented for a wait-type


           Executed when a service transitions from the offline state  to  the
           online state. This method allows a service author to carry out some
           preparation prior to a service starting to handle requests.


           Executed when a service transitions from the offline state  to  the
           disabled  state.  It  should result in any active connections for a
           service being terminated.


           Executed when both of the following conditions are met:

               o      inetd is refreshed, by  means  of  the  framework  or  a
                      SIGHUP,  or  a  request comes in to refresh the service,

               o      the service is currently in the online state  and  there
                      are  no  configuration  changes that would result in the
                      service needing to be taken  offline  and  brought  back

       The only compulsory method is the inetd_start method. In the absence of
       any of the others, inetd runs no method but behaves as if one  was  run

   Service Properties
       Configuration for SMF-managed services is stored in the SMF repository.
       The configuration is made up of the basic configuration of  a  service,
       the  configuration  for  each of the service's methods, and the default
       configuration applicable to all inetd-managed services.

       For details on viewing and modifying the configuration of a service and
       the defaults, refer to inetadm(1M).

       The  basic  configuration  of  a  service is stored in a property group
       named inetd in the service. The properties comprising the basic config‐
       uration are as follows:


           The address of the network interface to which the service should be
           bound. An empty string value causes the service to  accept  connec‐
           tions on any network interface.


           The  time  interval  in seconds between a failed bind attempt and a
           retry. The values 0 and -1 specify that no  retries  are  attempted
           and   the   first   failure   is  handled  the  same  as  exceeding


           The maximum number of times inetd retries binding  to  a  service's
           associated  port  before  giving up. The value -1 specifies that no
           retry limit is imposed. If none of  the  service's  protocols  were
           bound  to  before any imposed limit is reached, the service goes to
           the maintenance state; otherwise, if not all of the protocols  were
           bound to, the service goes to the degraded state.


           The time in seconds a service will remain offline if it exceeds its
           configured maximum connection rate, max_con_rate. The values 0  and
           -1 specify that connection rate limiting is disabled.


           The  backlog queue size. Represents a limit on the number of incom‐
           ing client requests that can be queued at the  listening  endpoints
           for servers.


           The type of the socket used by the service or the value tli to sig‐
           nify a TLI-based service. Valid socket  type  values  are:  stream,
           dgram, raw, seqpacket.


           The  count portion of the service's failure rate limit. The failure
           rate limit applies to wait-type services and is reached when  count
           instances of the service are started within a given time. Exceeding
           the rate results in the service being transitioned to  the  mainte‐
           nance  state.  This  is different from the behavior of the previous
           inetd, which continued to retry every 10 minutes, indefinitely. The
           failrate_cnt  check  accounts  for badly behaving servers that fail
           before consuming the service request and which would  otherwise  be
           continually  restarted,  taxing  system  resources. Failure rate is
           equivalent to the -r option of the previous inetd. The values 0 and
           -1 specify that this feature is disabled.


           The time portion in seconds of the service's failure rate. The val‐
           ues 0 and -1 specify that the failure rate limit  feature  is  dis‐


           If true, pass inetd's environment on to the service's start method.
           Regardless of this setting, inetd will set the variables  SMF_FMRI,
           SMF_METHOD, and SMF_RESTARTER in the start method's environment, as
           well as any environment variables set in the method context.  These
           variables are described in smf_method(5).


           If true, this is an RPC service.


           The maximum allowed connection rate, in connections per second, for
           a nowait-type service. The values 0 and -1 specify that  that  con‐
           nection rate limiting is disabled.


           The  maximum number of copies of a nowait service that can run con‐
           currently. The values 0 and -1 specify that copies limiting is dis‐


           Can be set to one of the following values:

               o      a service name understood by getservbyname(3SOCKET);

               o      if  isrpc  is  set to true, a service name understood by

               o      if isrpc is set to true, a valid RPC program number.


           In the case of socket-based services, this is a list  of  protocols
           supported by the service. Valid protocols are: tcp, tcp6, tcp6only,
           udp, udp6, and udp6only. In the case of TLI  services,  this  is  a
           list of netids recognized by getnetconfigent(3NSL) supported by the
           service, plus the values tcp6only and  udp6only.  RPC/TLI  services
           also support nettypes in this list, and inetd first tries to inter‐
           pret the list member as a nettype for these service types. The val‐
           ues  tcp6only  and  udp6only are new to inetd; these values request
           that inetd listen only for and pass on true IPv6 requests (not IPv4
           mapped  ones).  See  "Configuring  Protocols for Sockets-Based Ser‐
           vices," below.


           Lowest supported RPC version. Required when isrpc is set to true.


           Highest supported RPC version. Required when isrpc is set to true.


           If true, enable the periodic transmission of  messages  on  a  con‐
           nected  socket.  If  the  connected party fails to respond to these
           messages, the connection is considered broken. This applies only to
           services with endpoint_type set to streams and wait set to false.


           If true, and this is a nowait-type service, inetd logs the client's
           IP address and TCP port number, along with the name of the service,
           for  each incoming connection, using the syslog(3C) facility. inetd
           uses the syslog facility code daemon and notice priority level. See
           syslog.conf(4)  for a description of syslog codes and severity lev‐
           els. This logging is separate from the  logging  done  by  the  TCP
           wrappers facility.

           tcp_trace  is equivalent to the previous inetd's -t option (and the
           /etc/default/inetd property ENABLE_CONNECTION_LOGGING).


           If true, enable TCP wrappers access control. This applies  only  to
           services  with  endpoint_type set to streams and wait set to false.
           The syslog facility code daemon is used to log allowed  connections
           (using  the  notice  severity  level) and denied traffic (using the
           warning severity level). See syslog.conf(4) for  a  description  of
           syslog  codes  and  severity levels. The Interface Stability of the
           TCP wrappers facility and its configuration files is  Volatile.  As
           the  TCP  wrappers facility is not controlled by Sun, intra-release
           incompatibilities are not uncommon. See attributes(5).

           For more  information  about  configuring  TCP  wrappers,  see  the
           tcpd(1M)  and  hosts_access(4)  man  pages,  available in the secu‐
           rity/tcp-wrapper package.

           tcp_wrappers   is    equivalent    to    the    previous    inetd's
           /etc/default/inetd property ENABLE_TCPWRAPPERS.


           If  true this is a wait-type service, otherwise it is a nowait-type
           service. A wait-type service has the following characteristics:

               o      Its inetd_start method will take over  listening  duties
                      on the service's bound endpoint when it is executed.

               o      inetd  will  wait  for  it  to exit after it is executed
                      before it resumes listening duties.
           Datagram servers must be configured as being of type wait, as  they
           are  always  invoked  with the original datagram endpoint that will
           participate in delivering the service bound to the  specified  ser‐
           vice.  They  do not have separate "listening" and "accepting" sock‐
           ets. Connection-oriented services, such as TCP stream services  can
           be designed to be either of type wait or nowait.

       A  number  of the basic properties are optional for a service. In their
       absence, their values are taken from the set of default values  present
       in  the defaults property group in the inetd service. These properties,
       with their seed values, are listed below. Note that  these  values  are
       configurable through inetadm(1M).

         bind_fail_interval  -1
         bind_fail_max       -1
         con_rate_offline    -1
         connection_backlog  10
         failrate_count      40
         failrate_time       60
         inherit_env         true
         max_con_rate        -1
         max_copies          -1
         tcp_keepalive       false
         tcp_trace           false
         tcp_wrappers        false

       Each  method specified for a service will have its configuration stored
       in the SMF repository, within a property group of the same name as  the
       method.  The  set  of  properties  allowable for these methods includes
       those specified  for  the  services  managed  by  svc.startd(1M).  (See
       svc.startd(1M)  for further details.) Additionally, for the inetd_start
       method, you can set the arg0 property.

       The arg0 property allows external wrapper  programs  to  be  used  with
       inetd services. Specifically, it allows the first argument, argv[0], of
       the service's start method to be something other than the path  of  the
       server program.

       In  the case where you want to use an external wrapper program and pass
       arguments to the service's daemon, the arguments should be incorporated
       as arguments to the wrapper program in the exec property. For example:

         exec='/path/to/wrapper/prog service_daemon_args'

       In  addition  to  the special method tokens mentioned in smf_method(5),
       inetd also supports the :kill_process  token  for  wait-type  services.
       This results in behavior identical to that if the :kill token were sup‐
       plied, except that the kill signal is sent only to the  parent  process
       of  the  wait-type  service's  start  method, not to all members of its
       encompassing process contract (see process(4)).

   Configuring Protocols for Sockets-Based Services
       When configuring inetd  for  a  sockets-based  service,  you  have  the
       choice,  depending on what is supported by the service, of the alterna‐
       tives described under the proto  property,  above.  The  following  are
       guidelines for which proto values to use:

           o      For a service that supports only IPv4: tcp and udp

           o      For a service that supports only IPv6: tcp6only and udp6only

           o      For a service that supports both IPv4 and IPv6:

               o      Obsolete and not recommended: tcp6 and udp6

               o      Recommended:  use  two separate entries that differ only
                      in the proto field. One entry has tcp and the other  has
                      tcp6only, or udp plus udp6only.

       See  EXAMPLES  for an example of a configuration of a service that sup‐
       ports both IPv4 and IPv6.

   inetd Methods
       inetd provides the methods listed below for consumption by  the  master
       restarter, svc.startd(1M).


           Causes  inetd  to  start  providing  service. This results in inetd
           beginning to handle smf requests for its managed services and  net‐
           work  requests  for those services that are in either the online or
           degraded state.

           In addition, inetd also checks if the inetd.conf(4)-format configu‐
           ration  file  it  is  monitoring  has  changed since the last inet‐
           conv(1M) conversion was carried out. If  it  has,  then  a  message
           telling  the administrator to re-run inetconv to effect the changes
           made is logged in syslog.


           Causes inetd to stop providing service. At this point, inetd  tran‐
           sitions each of its services that are not in either the maintenance
           or disabled states to the offline state,  running  any  appropriate
           methods in the process.


           Results  in  a refresh being performed for each of its managed ser‐
           vices and the inetd.conf(4) format configuration file being checked
           for  change,  as  in the start method. When a service is refreshed,
           its behavior depends on its current state:

               o      if it is in  the  maintenance  or  disabled  states,  no
                      action  is  performed  because the configuration will be
                      read and consumed when the service leaves the state;

               o      if it is in the offline state, the configuration will be
                      read and any changes consumed immediately;

               o      if it is in the online or degraded state and the config‐
                      uration has changed such that a re-binding is  necessary
                      to  conform to it, then the service will be transitioned
                      to the offline state and back again, using the new  con‐
                      figuration for the bind;

               o      if  it  is  in  the online state and a re-binding is not
                      necessary, then the inetd_refresh method of the service,
                      if  provided, will be run to allow online wait-type ser‐
                      vices to consume any other changes.

       No options are supported.


           Specifies  an  alternate  location  for  the  legacy  service  file


           Specifies which of inetd's methods should be run.

       Example 1 Configuring a Service that Supports Both IPv4 and IPv6

       The  following  commands illustrate the existence of services that sup‐
       port both IPv4 and IPv6 and assign proto properties to those services.

         example# svcs -a | grep mysvc
         online         15:48:29 svc:/network/mysvc:dgram4
         online         15:48:29 svc:/network/mysvc:dgram6
         online         15:51:47 svc:/network/mysvc:stream4
         online         15:52:10 svc:/network/mysvc:stream6

         # inetadm -M network/rpc/mysvc:dgram4 proto=udp
         # inetadm -M network/rpc/mysvc:dgram6 proto=udp6only
         # inetadm -M network/rpc/mysvc:stream4 proto=tcp
         # inetadm -M network/rpc/mysvc:stream6 proto=tcp6only

       See svcs(1) and inetadm(1M) for descriptions of those commands.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box;  cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)   |lw(2.75i)   ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os _ Interface Stabil‐

       fmd(1M), inetadm(1M), inetconv(1M),  svcadm(1M),  svccfg(1M),  svcs(1),
       svc.startd(1M),  syslog(3C), getnetconfigent(3NSL), getrpcbyname(3NSL),
       getservbyname(3SOCKET),  inetd.conf(4),   process(4),   syslog.conf(4),
       attributes(5), smf(5), smf_method(5)

       The inetd daemon performs the same function as, but is implemented sig‐
       nificantly differently from, the daemon of the same name in  Solaris  9
       and  prior  Solaris  operating  system releases. In the current Solaris
       release, inetd is part of the Solaris Management Facility (see  smf(5))
       and will run only within that facility.

       The /etc/default/inetd file has been deprecated. The functionality rep‐
       resented    by    the    properties    ENABLE_CONNECTION_LOGGING    and
       ENABLE_TCP_WRAPPERS are now available as the tcp_trace and tcp_wrappers
       properties, respectively. These properties are described  above,  under
       "Service Properties".

SunOS 5.11                        9 Mar 2015                         inetd(1M)
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