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SCREEN(1)                   General Commands Manual                  SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter‐
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out‐
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis‐
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,  screen
       exits.  Shells  usually  distinguish  between running as login-shell or
       sub-shell.  Screen runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise  (See
       shell .screenrc command).

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win‐
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix C- to mean control, although this
       notation is used in this manual for readability.  Please use the  caret
       notation (^A instead of C-a) as arguments to e.g. the escape command or
       the -e option.  Screen will also print out control characters in  caret

       The standard way to create a new window is to type C-a c.  This creates
       a new window running a shell and switches to that  window  immediately,
       regardless  of  the state of the process running in the current window.
       Similarly, you can create a new window with a custom command in  it  by
       first  binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc file or at
       the C-a : command line) and then using it just like the C-a c  command.
       In addition, new windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from  a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not
       run another copy of screen, but will instead supply  the  command  name
       and its arguments to the window manager (specified in the $STY environ‐
       ment variable) who will use it to create the  new  window.   The  above
       example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its
       window. - Note that you cannot transport environment variables from the
       invoking  shell  to the application (emacs in this case), because it is
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If /etc/utmp is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be writ‐
       ten to this file for each window, and removed when the window is termi‐
       nated.  This is useful for working with talk, script, shutdown,  rsend,
       sccs and other similar programs that use the utmp file to determine who
       you are. As long as screen is active on your terminal,  the  terminal's
       own record is removed from the utmp file. See also C-a L.

       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have cor‐
       rectly selected your terminal type, just as you  would  for  any  other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using test for example.)

       If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading, you should remember this one command:  C-a  ?.   Typing  these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS.  The  manual section CUSTOMIZATION deals with the contents of
       your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a true auto-margin terminal (it doesn't  allow  the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider using a version of your terminal's termcap that has  automatic
       margins  turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances. Most  terminals  nowadays  have  magic
       margins  (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly suited for screen.  If all  you've  got  is  a
       true  auto-margin terminal screen will be content to use it, but updat‐
       ing a character put into the last position on the  screen  may  not  be
       possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a safe
       position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a ter‐
       minal with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win‐
            dow's termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
            order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes of all windows to the size of the current termi‐
            nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old  window  sizes
            when  attaching  to  resizable  terminals  (those  with  WS in its
            description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file  from  $HOME/.screenrc  to

       -d|-D []
            does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen
            session. It has the same effect as typing C-a d from screen's con‐
            trolling  terminal.  -D is the equivalent to the power detach key.
            If no session can be detached, this option is ignored. In combina‐
            tion with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach  a  session  and if necessary detach or even create it

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  create  it.  Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach  a  session.  If  necessary detach and logout remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run‐
               ning,  then  reattach.  If necessary detach and logout remotely
               first.  If it was not running create it and  notify  the  user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always a good idea to check the status of your ses‐
            sions by means of screen -list.

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character generat‐
            ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
            character).  The default is C-a and `a', which can be specified as
            -e^Aa.   When  creating  a  screen  session,  this option sets the
            default command character. In a multiuser session all users  added
            will  start off with this command character. But when attaching to
            an already running session, this option changes only  the  command
            character  of  the  attaching  user.  This option is equivalent to
            either the commands defescape or escape respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or automatic switching mode.  This can
            also be defined through the defflow .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause  the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the dis‐
            play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See  the  defflow
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour‐

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for  /etc/utmp  updating).   This  can
            also be defined through the deflogin .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does  not  start screen, but prints a list of strings
            identifying your screen sessions.  Sessions marked `detached'  can
            be resumed with screen -r. Those marked `attached' are running and
            have a controlling terminal. If  the  session  runs  in  multiuser
            mode,  it  is  marked  `multi'.  Sessions  marked as `unreachable'
            either live on a different host or  are  `dead'.   An  unreachable
            session  is considered dead, when its name matches either the name
            of the local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r
            flag  for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions marked
            as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and removed.  Ask your sys‐
            tem  administrator  if  you are not sure. Remove sessions with the
            -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -Logfile file
            By default logfile name is screenlog.0. You can  set  new  logfile
            name with the -Logfile option.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With screen
            -m creation of a  new  session  is  enforced,  regardless  whether
            screen  is  called from within another screen session or not. This
            flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d' option:

       -d -m   Start screen in detached mode. This creates a new  session  but
               doesn't  attach  to  it.  This  is  useful  for  system startup

       -D -m   This also starts screen in detached mode, but  doesn't  fork  a
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  an optimal output mode for your terminal rather than true
            VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals without `LP').
            This  can  also  be  set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a
            termcap command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to  a
            specific window or you want to send a command via the -X option to
            a specific window. As with screen's select command, - selects  the
            blank window. As a special case for reattach, = brings up the win‐
            dowlist on the blank window, while a + will create a  new  window.
            The command will not be executed if the specified window could not
            be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with  -ls  the
            exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses‐
            sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
            sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
            combination with -r the exit value is  as  follows:  10  indicates
            that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
            there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases -q has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this
            flag, e.g. screen -Q windows. The commands will send the  response
            to  the  stdout  of the querying process. If there was an error in
            the command, then the querying process will exit with  a  non-zero

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com‐
            binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional  prefix
            of  [pid.]  may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
            detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
            another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
            indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another  user's
            directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes  screen  only  when  it's unambiguous which one to attach,
            usually when only one screen is detached. Otherwise  lists  avail‐
            able  sessions.   -RR attempts to resume the first detached screen
            session it finds.  If successful, all other  command-line  options
            are  ignored.  If no detached session exists, starts a new session
            using the specified options, just as if -R had not been specified.
            The  option  is  set  by default if screen is run as a login-shell
            (actually screen uses -xRR in that case).  For  combinations  with
            the -d/-D option see there.

       -s program
            sets  the  default  shell to the program specified, instead of the
            value in the  environment  variable  $SHELL  (or  /bin/sh  if  not
            defined).   This  can  also be defined through the shell .screenrc
            command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify  a
            meaningful  name for the session. This name identifies the session
            for screen -list and screen -r actions. It substitutes the default
            [] suffix. This name should not be longer then 80 symbols.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified pro‐
            gram.  See also the shelltitle .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment variable using  the  specified  term  as
            opposed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run  screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your ter‐
            minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
            the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does  the  same  as  screen  -ls,  but  removes destroyed sessions
            instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is con‐
            sidered  dead,  when its name matches either the name of the local
            host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r  flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to  a  not  detached screen session. (Multi display mode).
            Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You may
            use the -S option to specify the screen session if you  have  sev‐
            eral  screen  sessions running. You can use the -d or -r option to
            tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen sessions.
            Note  that  this  command  doesn't work if the session is password

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a  C-a  followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound to
       lower-case letters are also bound to their control  character  counter‐
       parts  (with the exception of C-a a; see below), thus, C-a c as well as
       C-a C-c can be used to create a window. See section CUSTOMIZATION for a
       description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings. The trailing commas
       in boxes with multiple keystroke entries are separators,  not  part  of
       the bindings.

       tab(;); lb l l.  _ C-a ';(select);T{ Prompt for a window name or number
       to switch to.  T} _ C-a ";(windowlist -b);T{ Present a list of all win‐
       dows  for  selection.   T} _ C-a digit;(select 0-9);T{ Switch to window
       number 0 - 9 T} _ C-a -;(select -);T{ Switch to window number 0 - 9, or
       to the blank window.  T} _ C-a tab;(focus);T{ Switch the input focus to
       the  next  region.   See  also  split,  remove,  only.   T}  _  C-a  C-
       a;(other);T{ Toggle to the window displayed previously.  Note that this
       binding defaults to the command character typed twice, unless  overrid‐
       den.   For  instance,  if you use the option -e]x, this command becomes
       ]].  T} _ C-a a  ;(meta);T{ Send the command character (C-a) to window.
       See  escape  command.   T} _ C-a A;(title);T{ Allow the user to enter a
       name for the current window.  T} _ T{ C-a b,
       C-a  C-b  T};(break);T{  Send  a   break   to   window.    T}   _   C-a
       B;(pow_break);T{ Reopen the terminal line and send a break.  T} _ T{ C-
       a c,
       C-a C-c T};(screen);T{ Create a new window with a shell and  switch  to
       that window.  T} _ C-a C;(clear);T{ Clear the screen.  T} _ T{ C-a d,
       C-a  C-d  T};(detach);T{  Detach screen from this terminal.  T} _ C-a D
       D;(pow_detach);T{ Detach and logout.  T} _ T{ C-a f,
       C-a C-f T};(flow);T{ Toggle flow on, off or auto.  T} _ C-a  F;(fit);T{
       Resize  the window to the current region size.  T} _ C-a C-g;(vbell);T{
       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.  T} _ C-a  h;(hardcopy);T{  Write  a
       hardcopy  of  the  current  window  to  the  file hardcopy.n.  T} _ C-a
       H;(log);T{ Begins/ends logging  of  the  current  window  to  the  file
       screenlog.n.  T} _ T{ C-a i,
       C-a C-i T};(info);T{ Show info about this window.  T} _ T{ C-a k,
       C-a C-k T};(kill);T{ Destroy current window.  T} _ T{ C-a l,
       C-a  C-l  T};(redisplay);T{  Fully  refresh  current  window.  T} _ C-a
       L;(login);T{ Toggle this windows login slot. Available only  if  screen
       is configured to update the utmp database.  T} _ T{ C-a m,
       C-a  C-m  T};(lastmsg);T{ Repeat the last message displayed in the mes‐
       sage line.  T} _ C-a M;(monitor);T{ Toggles monitoring of  the  current
       window.  T} _ T{ C-a space,
       C-a n,
       C-a C-n T};(next);T{ Switch to the next window.  T} _ C-a N;(number);T{
       Show the number (and title)  of  the  current  window.   T}  _  T{  C-a
       C-a C-h,
       C-a p,
       C-a C-p T};(prev);T{ Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-a n).
       T} _ T{ C-a q,
       C-a C-q T};(xon);T{ Send a control-q to the current window.  T}  _  C-a
       Q;(only);T{  Delete  all  regions but the current one.  See also split,
       remove, focus.  T} _ T{ C-a r,
       C-a C-r T};(wrap);T{ Toggle  the  current  window's  line-wrap  setting
       (turn  the current window's automatic margins on and off).  T} _ T{ C-a
       C-a C-s; T};(xoff);T{ Send a control-s to the current window.  T} _ C-a
       S;(split);T{  Split  the current region horizontally into two new ones.
       See also only, remove, focus.  T} _ T{ C-a t,
       C-a C-t T};(time);T{ Show system information.  T} _ C-a  v;(version);T{
       Display  the  version  and compilation date.  T} _ C-a C-v;(digraph);T{
       Enter digraph.  T} T{ C-a w,
       C-a C-w T};(windows);T{ Show a list of window.  T} _  C-a  W;(width);T{
       Toggle 80/132 columns.  T} _ C-a x or C-a C-x;(lockscreen);T{ Lock this
       terminal.  T} _ C-a X ;(remove);T{ Kill the current region.   See  also
       split, only, focus.  T} _ T{ C-a z,
       C-a  C-z T};(suspend);T{ Suspend screen.  Your system must support BSD-
       style job-control.  T} _ C-a Z;(reset);T{ Reset the virtual terminal to
       its  power-on values.  T} _ C-a .;(dumptermcap);T{ Write out a .termcap
       file.  T} _ C-a ?;(help);T{ Show key bindings.  T}  _  C-a  \;(quit);T{
       Kill  all  windows  and  terminate screen.  T} _ C-a :;(colon);T{ Enter
       command line mode.  T} _ T{ C-a [,
       C-a C-[,
       C-a esc T};(copy);T{ Enter copy/scrollback mode.  T} _ T{ C-a C-],
       C-a ] T};(paste .);T{ Write the contents of the  paste  buffer  to  the
       stdin queue of the current window.  T} _ T{ C-a {,
       C-a  }  T};(history);T{ Copy and paste a previous (command) line.  T} _
       C-a >;(writebuf);T{ Write paste buffer to a file.  T}  _  C-a  <;(read‐
       buf);T{ Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  T} _ C-a
       =;(removebuf);T{ Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.   T}  _  C-a
       ,;(license);T{  Shows where screen comes from, where it went to and why
       you can use it.  T} _ C-a _;(silence);T{ Start/stop monitoring the cur‐
       rent window for inactivity.  T} _ C-a |;(split -v);T{ Split the current
       region vertically into two new ones.  T} _ C-a *;(displays);T{  Show  a
       listing of all currently attached displays.  T} _

       The  socket  directory  defaults  either  to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to  /usr/local/screens  chosen  at  compile-
       time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should
       compile screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket directory.  If
       screen  is  not  running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  /usr/local/etc/screenrc  and  defaults that can be overridden in
       the following ways: for the global screenrc file  screen  searches  for
       the  environment  variable  $SYSSCREENRC  (this override feature may be
       disabled at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is  searched
       in  $SCREENRC,  then $HOME/.screenrc.  The command line option -c takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files are used to  set  options,  bind  functions  to
       keys,  and to automatically establish one or more windows at the begin‐
       ning of your screen session.  Commands are listed one  per  line,  with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or  double  quotes.   A  `#'
       turns  the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.  Unintel‐
       ligible lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain  ref‐
       erences  to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions,  as  now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no
       variable substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes  is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two  configuration  files are shipped as examples with your screen dis‐
       tribution: etc/screenrc and etc/etcscreenrc. They contain a  number  of
       useful examples for various commands.

       Customization  can  also  be  done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode
       type `C-a :'. Note that commands starting with def change default  val‐
       ues, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable  users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to  the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg usernames
       +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted  access,  use  the
       `aclchg'  command  below.  If an optional second parameter is supplied,
       it should be a crypted password for the named user(s).  `Addacl'  is  a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are represented as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants  the  permis‐
       sion,  `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe‐
       cial  list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A command can be executed when the user has the `x' bit  for  it.   The
       user  can  type  input  to  a window when he has its `w' bit set and no
       other user obtains a writelock for this window.  Other  bits  are  cur‐
       rently  ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in window
       2: `aclchg username -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session:
       `aclchg  username  -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known to screen
       he can attach to the session and (per default) has full permissions for
       all  command  and  windows.  Execution permission for the acl commands,
       `at' and others should also be removed or  the  user  may  be  able  to
       regain  write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot
       be changed (see the su command).  `Chacl' is  a  synonym  to  `aclchg'.
       Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates  groups  of  users that share common access rights. The name of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits  the  permissions  that  are granted to the group leader. That
       means, if a user fails an access check, another check is made  for  the
       group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special value none
       is used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted  all  groups
       the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre‐
       ated by the caller of the command.  Users may be no,  one  or  a  comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all currently known users is  assumed.   Bits  is  any  combination  of
       access  control  bits allowed defined with the aclchg command. The spe‐
       cial username ? predefines the access that not yet known users will  be
       granted  to  any  window initially.  The special username ?? predefines
       the access that not yet known users are granted to any command.  Rights
       of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the su command).
       `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window  that  is  being  moni‐
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi‐
       cation message can be re-defined by  means  of  the  activity  command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the win‐
       dow in which activity has occurred, and  each  occurrence  of  `^G'  is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows  by  default,  but  can  be
       altered by use of the monitor command (C-a M).

       allpartial [ on | off ]

       If  set  to  on,  only  the  current cursor line is refreshed on window
       change.  This affects all windows  and  is  useful  for  slow  terminal
       lines.  The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window is
       restored with allpartial off.  This is a global flag  that  immediately
       takes  effect  on  all windows overriding the partial settings. It does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen [ on | off ]

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in  virtual  termi‐
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute  a  command  at  other  displays  or  windows as if it had been
       entered there.  At changes the context (the `current window'  or  `cur‐
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple  times.  If
       the  first  parameter  is  of the form `identifier*' then identifier is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis‐
       play  of  the  selected  user(s). If the first parameter is of the form
       `identifier%' identifier is  matched  against  displays.  Displays  are
       named  after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty' may
       be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has  a  `#'  or  nothing
       appended  it  is matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays  or  windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on
       the affected display(s) a short message will  describe  what  happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the at command, not for the own‐
       ers of the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a
       comment  introducer  when  it  is  preceded  by whitespace. This can be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the at command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of  win‐
       dows  (like  other)  may be called again. In shared windows the command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       commands  like login!  Some commands (e.g. process) require that a dis‐
       play is associated with the target windows.   These  commands  may  not
       work correctly under at looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This  command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color
       of the  text.  If  the  attribute  attrib  is  in  use,  the  specified
       attribute/color  modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given, the
       current one is deleted. See the STRING ESCAPES chapter for  the  syntax
       of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, i stands for
       high-intensity foreground color and  I  for  high-intensity  background


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use  bright  colors  for  bold  text.  Most  terminal emulators do this

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach [ on | off ]

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which  saves
       all  your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r com‐
       mand.  When turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen  and  all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke [ on | off ]

       Sets  whether  a  clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also obuflimit.

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...

       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The  output  of
       such  a  command  is used for substitution of the %` string escape. The
       specified lifespan is the number of seconds the  output  is  considered
       valid.  After  this  time,  the command is run again if a corresponding
       string escape is encountered.  The autorefresh  parameter  triggers  an
       automatic  refresh  for caption and hardstatus strings after the speci‐
       fied number of seconds. Only the last line of output is used  for  sub‐

       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back‐
       tick program is expected to stay in the background and generate  output
       once  in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away and
       screen stores the last line of output.  If  a  new  line  gets  printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.

       The  second  form  of the command deletes the backtick command with the
       numerical id id.

       bce [ on | off ]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If bce is set to on, all charac‐
       ters  cleared  by  an  erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will be dis‐
       played in the current background color.  Otherwise  the  default  back‐
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be  re-
       defined by this command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced
       by the number of the window to which a bell has  been  sent,  and  each
       occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your term‐
       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the bell_msg  command  to  suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided  by
       screen  are  bound  to one or more keys as indicated in the DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS section, e.g. the command to create a new window is  bound  to
       C-c  and  c.  The bind command can be used to redefine the key bindings
       and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a single  char‐
       acter,  a  two-character sequence of the form ^x (meaning C-x), a back‐
       slash followed by an octal number (specifying the  ASCII  code  of  the
       character),  or  a backslash followed by a second character, such as \^
       or \\.  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.   If  no  further
       argument  is  given, any previously established binding for this key is
       removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in  this  sec‐

       If a command class is specified via the -c option, the key is bound for
       the specified class. Use the command command to activate a class.  Com‐
       mand classes can be used to create multiple command keys or multi-char‐
       acter bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command usually invoked by C-a C-w would also be available
       as C-a space). The next three lines remove  the  default  kill  binding
       from  C-a C-k and C-a k.  C-a K is then bound to the kill command. Then
       it binds C-f to the command create a window with a TELNET connection to
       foobar, and bind escape to the command that creates an non-login window
       with a.k.a. root in slot #9, with a superuser shell  and  a  scrollback
       buffer of 1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes C-b 0 select window 10, C-b 1 window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                   bind - command -c demo2

       makes C-a - 0 select window 10, C-a - 1 window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This  command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in
       one of the tables tells screen how to react if a  certain  sequence  of
       characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should con‐
       tain actions programmed by the user, one for the default  actions  used
       for  terminal  emulation  and  one  for screen's copy mode to do cursor
       movement. See section INPUT TRANSLATION for a list of default key bind‐

       If  the  -d  option  is  given,  bindkey modifies the default table, -m
       changes the copy mode table and with neither option the user  table  is
       selected.   The  argument string is the sequence of characters to which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key‐
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some  keys  on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if applica‐
       tion mode is turned on (e.g the  cursor  keys).   Such  keys  have  two
       entries  in  the translation table. You can select the application mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd  can  be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d

       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries  are
       marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1

       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo

       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault

       This key-binding makes ^T an escape character for key-bindings. If  you
       did  the above stuff barfoo binding, you can enter the word foo by typ‐
       ing ^Tfoo. If you want to insert a ^T you have to press the  key  twice
       (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command

       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix systems the time interval may be  rounded  up  to  full  seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter WINDOW TYPES). The  maximum  duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started  and  it's output is written to the screen.  The screen blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.

       This command is normally used together with the idle command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker  program  if  an  empty
       argument  is given. Shows the currently set blanker program if no argu‐
       ments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal  devices.  This command should affect the current window only.
       But it still behaves identical to defbreaktype. This will be changed in
       the  future.   Calling  breaktype  with no parameter displays the break
       method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If  the  optional  argument  to  the bufferfile command is omitted, the
       default setting (/tmp/screen-exchange) is reactivated.   The  following
       example  will  paste  the system's password file into the screen window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [ on | off ]

       Change c1 code processing. C1 on tells screen to treat the input  char‐
       acters between 128 and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is
       normally the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit code.  The
       default  setting  is  to  process  c1 codes and can be changed with the
       defc1 command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters in the  c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This  command  controls  the display of the window captions. Normally a
       caption is only used if more than one window is shown  on  the  display
       (split  screen  mode).  But if the type is set to always screen shows a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use  all
       escapes  from the STRING ESCAPES chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You can have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom  of  the
       window.  The default is bottom.

       charset set

       Change  the current character set slot designation and charset mapping.
       The first four character of set  are  treated  as  charset  designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi‐
       cate  that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed (set
       is padded to six characters internally by appending  '.'   chars).  New
       windows  have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a encoding command is
       The current setting can be viewed with the info command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified  directory  or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means  of
       the  screen  command  from within .screenrc or by means of C-a : screen
       ...  or C-a c use this as their default  directory.   Without  a  chdir
       command, this would be the directory from which screen was invoked.

       Hardcopy  and  log  files  are  always  written to the window's default
       directory, not the current directory of the process running in the win‐
       dow.   You  can  use  this  command multiple times in your .screenrc to
       start various windows in different default directories,  but  the  last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter .screenrc command lines. Useful for on-the-fly mod‐
       ification of key bindings, specific window creation and  changing  set‐
       tings.  Note  that  the  set keyword no longer exists! Usually commands
       affect the current window rather than default settings for future  win‐
       dows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       C-a esc (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [ -c class"]"

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape  character
       (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the -c option is
       given, select the specified command class.  See also bind and bindkey.

       compacthist [ on | off ]

       This tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines  when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [ on | off ]

       Grabs  or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note: Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the cur‐
       rent window and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode  a  vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       tab(@); l l.  _ T{ h, C-h,
       left arrow T}@move the cursor left.  _ T{ j, C-n,
       down arrow T}@move the cursor down.  _ T{ k, C-p,
       up arrow T}@move the cursor up.  _ T{ l ('el'),
       right arrow T}@move the cursor right.  _ 0 (zero) C-a@move to the left‐
       most column.  _ + and -@positions one line up and down.   _  H,  M  and
       L@T{  move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center or bot‐
       tom line of the window.  T} _ |@moves to the specified absolute column.
       _  g or home@moves to the beginning of the buffer.  _ G or end@T{ moves
       to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).  T} _  %@jumps
       to  the  specified  percentage  of the buffer.  _ ^ or $@T{ move to the
       leftmost column, to the first or last non-whitespace character  on  the
       line.   T} _ w, b, and e@move the cursor word by word.  _ B, E@move the
       cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).  _ f/F, t/T@T{  move  the  cursor  for‐
       ward/backward  to  the  next  occurrence of the target. (eg, '3fy' will
       move the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)  T} _ ; and  ,@T{  Repeat
       the  last f/F/t/T command in the same/opposite direction.  T} _ C-e and
       C-y@T{ scroll the display up/down by one line while preserving the cur‐
       sor  position.   T}  _ C-u and C-d@T{ scroll the display up/down by the
       specified  amount  of  lines  while  preserving  the  cursor  position.
       (Default:  half  screen-full).   T}  _  C-b  and C-f@scroll the display
       up/down a full screen.  _

       Note: Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a  .screenrc  com‐
       mand.  (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple method for a
       full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The copy range is specified by setting  two  marks.  The  text  between
       these marks will be highlighted. Press:

              space  or enter to set the first or second mark respectively. If
              mousetrack is set to `on', marks can  also  be  set  using  left
              mouse click.

              Y  and  y  used  to mark one whole line or to mark from start of

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any of these commands can be prefixed with a  repeat  count  number  by
       pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example:  C-a  C-[  H  10 j 5 Y will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste

       The following search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.   Vi  does
       not  allow  one  to  yank  rectangular blocks of text, but screen does.
       Press: c or C to set the left  or  right  margin  respectively.  If  no
       repeat count is given, both default to the current cursor position.

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE.

       This  moves  one  to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns
       left, marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets  the  left  column,
       moves  5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks the end of
       the paste buffer. Now try:

              C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline
       character  (012),  lines  glued  seamless,  lines separated by a single
       whitespace and comma separated lines. Note that  you  can  prepend  the
       newline  character  with a carriage return character, by issuing a crlf

       v or V is for all the vi users with :set numbers - it toggles the  left
       margin between column 9 and 1. Press

       a  before  the  final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the con‐
       tents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer to
       the  screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-
       mode is finished.

       This example demonstrates how to dump the whole  scrollback  buffer  to
       that file: C-A [ g SPACE G $ >.

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x  or  o  exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You
       can use this to adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use readreg instead.

       crlf [ on | off ]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a ['  command.  If
       it  is  set  to  `on',  lines  will  be  separated by the two character
       sequence `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When  no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug [ on | off ]

       Turns  runtime  debugging  on  or off. If screen has been compiled with
       option -DDEBUG debugging available and is turned on per  default.  Note
       that  this  command  only affects debugging output from the main SCREEN
       process correctly. Debug output from attacher  processes  can  only  be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 [ on | off ]

       Same  as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke [ on | off ]

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default  setting  for  new
       displays  is  changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use
       the special `AN' terminal capability if you want to have  a  dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce [ on | off ]

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal  devices.  The preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.
       The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the  duration
       of  the  break,  but  it  may  be the only way to generate long breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g.  4 per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also dif‐
       fers between serial board drivers.  Calling defbreaktype with no param‐
       eter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like  the  charset command except that the default setting for new win‐
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defdynamictitle [ on | off ]

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should change
       window title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (nam‐
       ing windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent  to  the  escape
       except  that  it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a multiuser ses‐
       sion escape changes the command character of the  calling  user,  where
       defescape changes the default command characters for users that will be
       added later.

       defflow [ on | off | auto [ interrupt ]]

       Same as the flow command except that the default setting for  new  win‐
       dows  is  changed.  Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying defflow auto
       interrupt is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr [ on | off ]

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The  hardstatus  line  that  all new windows will get is set to status.
       This command is useful to make the hardstatus of every  window  display
       the  window  number  or title or the like.  Status may contain the same
       directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape  charac‐
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin‐
       terpretation of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If  the
       parameter  status  is omitted, the current default string is displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter‐

       deflog [ on | off ]

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin [ on | off ]

       Same  as the login command except that the default setting for new win‐
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con‐

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no defmode command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor [ on | off]

       Same as the monitor command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack [ on | off ]

       Same  as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock [ on | off | numsecs]

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default setting  for  dis‐
       plays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same  as  the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that  you  can
       use  the  special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to have a depen‐
       dency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence [ on | off ]

       Same  as  the  silence  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 [ on | off ]

       Same  as  the utf8 command except that the default setting for new win‐
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `on' if screen was started with -U,
       otherwise `off'.

       defwrap [ on | off ]

       Same  as  the wrap command except that the default setting for new win‐
       dows is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with  the
       wrap command (C-a r) or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock [ on | off | auto ]

       Same  as  the writelock command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and  put  it
       into  the background).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked
       screen.  A detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen  with  the
       -r  option (see also section COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS). The -h option tells
       screen to immediately close the connection to the terminal (hangup).


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing  of  all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following
       keys can be used in displays list:

       tab(@); l l.  _ k, C-p, or up@Move up one line.  _ j, C-n, or down@Move
       down one line.  _ C-a or  home@Move  to  the  first  line.   _  C-e  or
       end@Move to the last line.  _ C-u or C-d@Move one half page up or down.
       _ C-b or C-f@Move one full page up or down.  _  mouseclick@T{  Move  to
       the  selected  line.  Available  when  mousetrack  is  set to on.  T} _
       space@Refresh the list _ d@Detach that display _  D@Power  detach  that
       display _ C-g, enter, or escape@Exit the list _

       The following is an example of what displays could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

              (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

              (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

              (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

              (E)  Display  is in blocking or nonblocking mode.  The available
              modes are "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

              (F) Number of the window

              (G) Name/title of window

              (H) Whether the window is shared

              (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters.

              allbox tab(:); csssss cs cs cs l l l l l l.  Window  permissions
              indicators   1st   character:2nd  character:3rd  character  -:no
              read:-:no write:-:no  execute  r:read:w:write:x:execute  ::W:own
              wlock::  lsssss  l  l  l  l l l.  Indicators of permissions sup‐
              pressed by a foreign wlock R:read only:.:no write::

              displays needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide  and
              5 characters high in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This  command  prompts  the  user  for a digraph sequence. The next two
       characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and  the  resulting
       character  is  inserted  in  the input stream. For example, if the user
       enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will  be  inserted.  If  the  first  character
       entered  is  a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters (up
       to three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset  is
       treated  as user input, thus one can create an umlaut key.  For example
       the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user to generate an a-
       umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is specified,
       a new digraph is created with the  specified  preset.  The  digraph  is
       unset if a zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the cur‐
       rently active window to the file .termcap in the  user's  $HOME/.screen
       directory (or wherever screen stores its sockets. See the FILES section
       below).  This termcap entry is identical to the value of  the  environ‐
       ment  variable  $TERMCAP  that is set up by screen for each window. For
       terminfo based systems you will need to run a converter like  captoinfo
       and then compile the entry with tic.

       dynamictitle [ on | off ]

       Change  behaviour  for windows regarding if screen should change window
       title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming win‐
       dows)" section.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo  command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of
       the day'. Typically installed in  a  global  /local/etc/screenrc.   The
       option -n may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also sleep.  Echo
       is also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument  sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
       encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of  the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a termi‐
       nal  encoding  depending  on  the terminal type by using the KJ termcap

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,
       KOI8-U,  CP1251,  UTF-8,  ISO8859-2,  ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5,
       ISO8859-6, ISO8859-7,  ISO8859-8,  ISO8859-9,  ISO8859-10,  ISO8859-15,

       See  also  defencoding, which changes the default setting of a new win‐

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating  a  literal
       command character (by triggering the meta command) to y (similar to the
       -e option).  Each argument is either a single character, a  two-charac‐
       ter  sequence  of the form ^x (meaning C-x), a backslash followed by an
       octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or  a  back‐
       slash followed by a second character, such as \^ or \\.  The default is

       eval command1[command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path  newcommand  and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in  the
       window  (let  us call it "application-process") and screen itself (win‐
       dow) is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This  pattern
       is  basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An  exclamation  mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be connected to
       the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go
       to  newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process' out‐
       put (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or  a  pipe  symbol  (|)  is
       added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.

       Invoking  `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the cur‐
       rently running subprocess in this window. Only one  subprocess  a  time
       can be running in each window.

       When  a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it instead
       of the windows process.

       Refer to the postscript file `doc/' for a  confusing  illustra‐
       tion  of  all  21  possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits
       2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of  newcommand.  The  box
       marked  `W'  is  the  usual pty that has the application-process on its
       slave side.  The box marked `P' is  the  secondary  pty  that  now  has
       screen at its master side.

       Abbreviations:  Whitespace  between  the  word `exec' and fdpat and the
       command can be omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat  consisting  only  of
       dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|';
       the word exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh

              exec /bin/sh


                     Creates another shell in the same window, while the orig‐
                     inal  shell  is  still  running. Output of both shells is
                     displayed and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200

              exec ! stty 19200

              !!stty 19200

                     Set the speed of the window's tty. If your  stty  command
                     operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less


                     This adds a pager to the window output. The special char‐
                     acter `|' is needed to give the  user  control  over  the
                     pager  although  it  gets  its  input  from  the window's
                     process. This works, because less listens  on  stderr  (a
                     behavior  that  screen  would not expect without the `|')
                     when its stdin is not a tty.  Less  versions  newer  than
                     177 fail miserably here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                     Sends  window  output  to both, the user and the sed com‐
                     mand. The sed inserts an additional bell character  (oct.
                     007)  to  the  window  output  seen by screen.  This will
                     cause "Bell in window x" messages,  whenever  the  string
                     "Error" appears in the window.


       Change  the window size to the size of the current region. This command
       is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [ on | off | auto]

       Sets  the  flow-control  mode  for  this window.  Without parameters it
       cycles the current window's flow-control setting  from  "automatic"  to
       "on"  to  "off".   See  the discussion on FLOW-CONTROL later on in this
       document for full details and note, that this is subject to  change  in
       future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [ next | prev | up | down | left | right | top | bottom ]

       Move  the  input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way
       so that the top left region is selected after the bottom right one.  If
       no  option  is  given  it  defaults  to  `next'.  The next region to be
       selected is determined by how the regions are layered.   Normally,  the
       next region in the same layer would be selected.  However, if that next
       region contains one or more layers, the first  region  in  the  highest
       layer  is  selected first. If you are at the last region of the current
       layer, `next' will move the focus to the next region in the lower layer
       (if  there is a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles in the opposite order. See
       split for more information about layers.

       The rest of the options (`up',  `down',  `left',  `right',  `top',  and
       `bottom') are more indifferent to layers. The option `up' will move the
       focus upward to the region that is touching the upper  left  corner  of
       the  current  region.   `Down' will move downward to the region that is
       touching the lower left corner of the current region. The option `left'
       will  move  the focus leftward to the region that is touching the upper
       left corner of the current region, while `right' will move rightward to
       the  region  that  is  touching  the  upper right corner of the current
       region. Moving left from a left most region  or  moving  right  from  a
       right most region will result in no action.

       The  option  `top'  will move the focus to the very first region in the
       upper list corner of the screen, and `bottom' will move to  the  region
       in  the  bottom  right  corner of the screen. Moving up from a top most
       region or moving down from a bottom  most  region  will  result  in  no

       Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
           bind h focus left
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind l focus right
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This  forces  any currently selected region to be automatically resized
       at least a certain width and height. All other surrounding regions will
       be resized in order to accommodate.  This constraint follows every time
       the focus command is used. The resize command can be used  to  increase
       either  dimension  of a region, but never below what is set with focus‐
       minsize. The underscore `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a  width  and
       height  of  `0  0'  (zero zero) will undo any constraints and allow for
       manual resizing.  Without any parameters, the minimum width and  height
       is shown.

       gr [ on | off ]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac‐
       ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
       and  print  the  character  with the 8th bit stripped. The default (see
       also defgr) is not  to  process  GR  switching  because  otherwise  the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change  or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows can be
       moved around between different groups by specifying  the  name  of  the
       destination group. Without specifying a group, the title of the current
       group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file,  or,  if  no
       filename  is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the  file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified, dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append [ on | off ]

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the  command  C-a  h,  otherwise these files are overwritten each time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files  will  be  placed.  If  unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [ on | off ]

       hardstatus  [ always ] firstline | lastline | message | ignore [ string

       hardstatus string [ string ]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the  terminal's  hard‐
       status  line.  The first form toggles whether screen will use the hard‐
       ware status line to display messages. If the  flag  is  set  to  `off',
       these  messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have  a
       hardstatus  line  (i.e.  the  termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts",
       "fs" and "ds" are not set).  When firstline/lastline  is  used,  screen
       will  reserve  the  first/last  line of the display for the hardstatus.
       message uses screen's message mechanism and ignore tells  screen  never
       to  display the hardstatus.  If you prepend the word always to the type
       (e.g., alwayslastline), screen will use the type even if  the  terminal
       supports a hardstatus.

       The  third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h' is
       used as default string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current win‐
       dow  (settable  via ESC]0;<string>^G or ESC_<string>ESC\) is displayed.
       You can customize this to any string you  like  including  the  escapes
       from  the STRING ESCAPES chapter. If you leave out the argument string,
       the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as  addi‐
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec‐
       ify  a  width  if  you want to change both values.  The -w option tells
       screen to leave the display size unchanged  and  just  set  the  window
       size, -d vice versa.


       Not  really  a  online help, but displays a help screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands  fol‐
       lowed  by  their  current  bindings.  Subsequent pages will display the
       custom commands, one command per key.  Press  space  when  you're  done
       reading  each  page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are
       ignored. If the -c option is given, display all bound commands for  the
       specified command class.  See also DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS section.


       Usually  users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command !! to repeat the  last  com‐
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       the command that started ...: You just type the first  letter  of  that
       command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the `prompt character' to the left  of  the  cursor.  This
       line  is  pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback  buf‐

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

       Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac‐
       tivity is reached. This command will normally be the blanker command to
       create  a screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.  If no com‐
       mand is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout of zero  (or  the
       special  timeout  off)  disables the timer.  If no arguments are given,
       the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [ on | off ]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in  searches.  Default  is
       `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current
       window: the cursor position in  the  form  (column,row)  starting  with
       (1,1),  the  terminal  width and height plus the size of the scrollback
       buffer in lines, like  in  (80,24)+50,  the  current  state  of  window
       XON/XOFF  flow  control  is shown like this (See also section FLOW CON‐

       allbox tab(@);  l  l.   +flow@automatic  flow  control,  currently  on.
       -flow@automatic  flow  control,  currently  off.  +(+)flow@flow control
       enabled. Agrees with automatic  control.   -(+)flow@flow  control  dis‐
       abled.   Disagrees   with  automatic  control.   +(-)flow@flow  control
       enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.  -(-)flow@flow control  dis‐
       abled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The  current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not)
       is also shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon'  or  `nored'
       are  displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin mode, applica‐
       tion-keypad mode, has output logging, activity  monitoring  or  partial
       redraw enabled.

       The  currently  active  character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square
       brackets the terminal character sets that are currently  designated  as
       G0  through  G3  is  shown.  If the window is in UTF-8 mode, the string
       UTF-8 is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are  displayed  at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter WINDOW TYPES).

       If  the  state  machine  of  the  terminal emulator is in a non-default
       state, the info line is started with a string identifying  the  current

       For system information use the time command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use paste instead.


       Kill current window.

       If  there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise the
       process (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition,  the
       window  structure  is  removed  and  screen  (your display) switches to
       another window.  When the  last  window  is  destroyed,  screen  exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.

       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep  this command in mind, when killing a
       line.  It is recommended not to use C-a as the screen escape key or  to
       rebind kill to C-a K.


       Redisplay  the  last  contents  of  the message/status line.  Useful if
       you're typing when a message appears, because  the  message  goes  away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands msgwait and msgminwait for fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and  be
       switched  to the blank window. From here, you build the regions and the
       windows they show as you desire. The new layout will be  numbered  with
       the  smallest available integer, starting with zero. You can optionally
       give a title to your new layout.  Otherwise, it  will  have  a  default
       title  of  layout.  You  can always change the title later by using the
       command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the num‐
       ber or the title can be specified. Without either specification, screen
       will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be speci‐
       fied.  Without  either  specification, screen will prompt and ask which
       screen is desired. To see which layouts are available, use  the  layout
       show command.

       layout show

       List  on  the  message line the number(s) and title(s) of the available
       layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given  will
       be  used to name the layout. Without any options, the current title and
       number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change or display the number of the current layout.  An  integer  given
       will  be  used  to  number the layout. Without any options, the current
       number and title is displayed on the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change or display which layout to reattach  back  to.  The  default  is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just
       before detachment. By supplying a title, You  can  instruct  screen  to
       reattach  to  a  particular layout regardless which one was used at the
       time of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will
       be shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember  the  current  arrangement  of regions. When used, screen will
       remember the arrangement of vertically and horizontally split  regions.
       This  arrangement  is  restored  when a screen session is reattached or
       switched back from a different layout.  If  the  session  ends  or  the
       screen  process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout dump
       command should help in this siutation. If a number  or  title  is  sup‐
       plied,  screen will remember the arrangement of that particular layout.
       Without any options, screen will remember the current layout.

       Saving your regions can be  done  automatically  by  using  the  layout
       autosave command.

       layout autosave [ on | off]

       Change  or  display  the  status  of  automatcally  saving layouts. The
       default is on, meaning when screen is detached or changed to a  differ‐
       ent  layout,  the arrangement of regions and windows will be remembered
       at the time of change and restored upon return.  If autosave is set  to
       off,  that arrangement will only be restored to either to the last man‐
       ual save, using layout save, or to when the layout was  first  created,
       to  a  single region with a single window. Without either an on or off,
       the current status is displayed on the message line.

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is
       useful  to recreate the order of your regions used in your current lay‐
       out. Only the current layout  is  recorded.  While  the  order  of  the
       regions are recorded, the sizes of those regions and which windows cor‐
       respond to which regions are not. If  no  filename  is  specified,  the
       default  is layout-dump, saved in the directory that the screen process
       was started in. If the file already exists, layout dump will append  to
       that file. As an example:

                   C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display  the  disclaimer  page. This is done whenever screen is started
       without  options,  which  should  be  often  enough.   See   also   the
       startup_message command.


       Lock  this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck or
       /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no other is available). Screen  does  not
       accept  any  command keys until this program terminates. Meanwhile pro‐
       cesses in  the  windows  may  continue,  as  the  windows  are  in  the
       `detached'  state.  The  screenlock  program may be changed through the
       environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be  set  in  the  shell  from
       which screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.

       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password
       set on screen, the lock is void: One could  easily  re-attach  from  an
       unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [ on | off ]

       Start/stop  writing  output of the current window to a file screenlog.n
       in the window's default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window.  This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command. If no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current contents and the contents of the  scrollback  history  are  not
       included in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename

       logfile flush secs

       Defines  the  name the log files will get. The default is screenlog.%n.
       The second form changes the number of seconds screen will  wait  before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [ on | off ]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database  file  for  the  current
       window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is given, the login state of the window is  toggled.   Additionally  to
       that  toggle,  it  is convenient having a `log in' and a `log out' key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be
       C-a I and C-a O.  The default setting (in should be on for
       a screen that runs under suid-root.  Use the deflogin command to change
       the default login state for new windows. Both commands are only present
       when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]

       logtstamp after [secs]

       logtstamp string

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps  are turned on, screen adds a string containing the current time
       to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When output  continues
       and  more  than another two minutes have passed, a second time-stamp is
       added to document the restart of the output. You can change this  time‐
       out  with  the  second  form of the command. The third form is used for
       customizing the time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp --  %M/%d/%y
       %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be looked up in
       the default bindkey table. See also bindkey.


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
       of  timeout  ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no argu‐
       ments shows the current setting.  See also bindkey.

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap  used  for  copy/history  mode.
       The  string  is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by
       `:'. Example: The string B=^B:F=^F will change the keys `C-b' and `C-f'
       to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to be
       the  default  binding  for  `B'  and   `F'.    The   command   markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E  would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command  may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The no-op
       character is `@' and is used like this: markkeys @=L=H if  you  do  not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this exam‐
       ple, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a  single  state‐

       maxwin num

       Set  the  maximum  window  number  screen  will  create. Doesn't affect
       already existing windows. The number can be increased only  when  there
       are no existing windows.


       Insert  the  command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current window's input

       monitor [ on | off ]

       Toggles activity monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is  turned  on
       and  an  affected  window  is  switched  into  the background, you will
       receive the activity notification message in the  status  line  at  the
       first  sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@' in
       the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off  for  all  win‐

       mousetrack [ on | off ]

       This  command  determines  whether  screen will watch for mouse clicks.
       When this command is enabled, regions that have been split  in  various
       ways can be selected by pointing to them with a mouse and left-clicking
       them. Without specifying on or off, the current state is displayed. The
       default state is determined by the defmousetrack command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines  the  time screen delays a new message when one message is cur‐
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen is not  disturbed  by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser [ on | off ]

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is singleuser. In  multiuser  mode  the  commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',
       `aclgrp'  and  `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable) other users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack [ on | off ]

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil‐
       iar  with  the  game  nethack, you may enjoy the nethack-style messages
       which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This  option  is only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if
       either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch to the next window.  This command  can  be  used  repeatedly  to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [ on | off | numsecs ]

       Tell  screen  how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem con‐
       nection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out‐
       put.  If  nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on
       is treated as 1s). If the display  still  doesn't  receive  characters,
       screen  will  consider it blocked and stop sending characters to it. If
       at some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock  the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change  the  current  window's number. If the given number n is already
       used by another window, both windows  exchange  their  numbers.  If  no
       argument  is specified, the current window number (and title) is shown.
       Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by the relative amount

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the  output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no
       more data will be read from the windows. The default value is  256.  If
       you  have  a  fast  display (like xterm), you can set it to some higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch to the window displayed  previously.  If  this  window  does  no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial [ on | off ]

       Defines  whether  the  display  should be refreshed (as with redisplay)
       after switching to the current window. This command  only  affects  the
       current  window.   To immediately affect all windows use the allpartial
       command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there
       is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present  a  crypted password in your .screenrc file and screen will ask
       for it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached.  This is useful
       if  you  have  privileged programs running under screen and you want to
       protect your session from reattach attempts by another user  masquerad‐
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci‐
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp‐
       tion  in  the  paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the  specified  registers  to  the
       stdin  queue  of the current window. The register '.' is treated as the
       paste buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a  sin‐
       gle  register  to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with the copy,
       history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled  with  the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second
       argument, the contents of the specified registers is  pasted  into  the
       named  destination  register  rather than the window. If '.' is used as
       the second argument, the displays  paste  buffer  is  the  destination.
       Note,  that  paste  uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a second
       argument is specified no current window  is  needed.  When  the  source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [ on | off ]

       Tell  screen  to  include  font  information  in  the paste buffer. The
       default is not to do so. This command is especially  useful  for  multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen  the  window's  terminal  line  and  send a break condition. See


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP  sig‐
       nal  to  the  parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in a
       logout, when screen was started from your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per‐
       formed.  It  may  be  used  as a replacement for a logout message or to
       reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command  can  be
       used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If  cmd  is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capa‐
       bilities po/pf if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe
       the  output  into  cmd.   This should normally be a command like lpr or
       printcmd without a command displays  the  current  setting.   The  ansi
       sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.

       Warning:  Be careful with this command! If other user have write access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
       If  no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The text
       is parsed as if it had been typed in from  the  user's  keyboard.  This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi‐
       nals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default  bind‐
       ings  dangerous:  Be  careful not to type C-a C-4 when selecting window
       no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in bind '^\') to  remove  a  key

       readbuf [encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents  of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
       is  specified,  the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also buffer‐
       file command.

       readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero  or
       one arguments it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register
       specified or entered at the prompt. With two  arguments  it  reads  the
       contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads the
       screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You can  tell  screen  the
       encoding  of  the  file  via the -e option.  The following example will
       paste the system's password file into the screen window (using register
       p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay  the  current  window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-eencoding]key-string

       Save the specified string to the register key.   The  encoding  of  the
       string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the paste command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks  the  screen-exchange  file  used  by the commands writebuf and

       rendition [ bell | monitor | silence | so ] attr [ color ]

       Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that  have  monitor
       or  bell  flags  set  in  caption  or hardstatus or windowlist. See the
       STRING ESCAPES chapter for the syntax of the  modifiers.   The  default
       for  monitor  is  currently  =b   (bold,  active  colors), for bell =ub
       (underline, bold and active colors), and =u for silence.


       Reset the virtual terminal to its power-on values. Useful when  strange
       settings  (like scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over
       from an application.

       resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or  added  to
       the  surrounding  regions  depending  on  the order of the splits.  The
       available options for resizing  are  `-h'(horizontal),  `-v'(vertical),
       `-b'(both),  `-l'(local  to layer), and `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal
       resizes will add or remove width to a  region,  vertical  will  add  or
       remove  height,  and both will add or remove size from both dimensions.
       Local and perpendicular are similar to  horizontal  and  vertical,  but
       they  take  in  account  of how a region was split.  If a region's last
       split was horizontal, a local resize will work like a vertical  resize.
       If  a region's last split was vertical, a local resize will work like a
       horizontal resize. Perpendicular resizes  work  in  opposite  of  local
       resizes. If no option is specified, local is the default.

       The  amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed a couple of dif‐
       ferent ways. By specifying a number n by itself will resize the  region
       by that absolute amount. You can specify a relative amount by prefixing
       a plus `+' or minus `-' to the amount,  such  as  adding  +n  lines  or
       removing  -n  lines.  Resizing  can also be expressed as an absolute or
       relative percentage by postfixing a percent sign `%'. Using zero `0' is
       a synonym for `min' and using an underscore `_' is a synonym for `max'.

       Some examples are:

       resize +N
              increase current region by N

       resize -N
              decrease current region by N

       resize  N
              set current region to N

       resize 20%
              set current region to 20% of original size

       resize +20%
              increase current region by 20%

       resize -b =
              make all windows equally

       resize  max
              maximize current region

       resize  min
              minimize current region

       Without  any  arguments,  screen  will prompt for how you would like to
       resize the current region.

       See focusminsize if you want to restrict the minimum size a region  can

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish  a  new  window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal  type
       option  (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback option
       (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option  (-M)  turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for this window.  If an optional number n in the range  0..MAXWIN-1  is
       given, the window number n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if this number is already in-use, the next  available  number).   If  a
       command  is  specified after screen, this command (with the given argu‐
       ments) is started in the window; otherwise, a  shell  is  created.   If
       //group  is supplied, a container-type window is created in which other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your .screenrc contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection  to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title
       foobar in window #2) and will write a logfile (screenlog.2) of the tel‐
       net  session.   Note,  that unlike previous versions of screen no addi‐
       tional default window is created when screen commands are  included  in
       your  .screenrc  file.  When  the  initialization  is completed, screen
       switches to the last window specified in your  .screenrc  file  or,  if
       none, opens a default window #0.

       Screen  has  built  in  some  functionality of cu and telnet.  See also
       chapter WINDOW TYPES.

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current  windows  to  num
       lines. The default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the defscrollback
       command and use info to view the current setting. To access and use the
       contents in the scrollback buffer, use the copy command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param‐
       eter  is  optional  and if omitted, you get prompted for an identifier.
       When a new  window  is  established,  the  first  available  number  is
       assigned  to  this  window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by
       select 0.  The number of windows is  limited  at  compile-time  by  the
       MAXWIN  configuration  parameter (which defaults to 40).  There are two
       special WindowIDs, - selects the internal blank window  and  .  selects
       the  current  window.  The  latter  is  useful if used with screen's -X

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that for screen -list the name  shows
       up  with the process-id prepended. If the argument name is omitted, the
       name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY environment  vari‐
       ables  will still reflect the old name in pre-existing shells. This may
       result in confusion. Use of this command is generally discouraged.  Use
       the  -S  command-line  option  if  you want to name a new session.  The
       default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec‐
       ified,  the  user  will be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters
       are specified, the user will be prompted for both variable  and  value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [ on | off ]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win‐
       dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will  be  in the same process group as the screen backend process. This
       also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is on, of  course.
       This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to  run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program speci‐
       fied in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-' character, the  shell
       will  be  started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only minimal ini‐
       tialization when not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read
       your ~/.bashrc unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title for all shells created during startup or by the C-A C-c
       command.  For details about what a title is, see the  discussion  enti‐
       tled TITLES (naming windows).

       silence [ on | off | sec ]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and
       an affected window is switched into the background,  you  will  receive
       the  silence  notification message in the status line after a specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the  `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows  monitored  for  silence  should  wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num sec‐
       onds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be  used  to  give
       users a chance to read the messages output by echo.

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the  speed at which text is inserted into the current window by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written  character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec mil‐
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to  a  maximum  recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of  the  running source command file is used to search for the new com‐
       mand file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work  at  startup
       and  reattach  time,  so  they must be reached via the default screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the  display
       are  resized  to make room for the new region. The blank window is dis‐
       played in the new region. The default is to create a horizontal  split,
       putting the new regions on the top and bottom of each other. Using `-v'
       will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to appear side by
       side  of  each  other.   Use  the  remove or the only command to delete
       regions.  Use focus to toggle between regions.

       When a region is split opposite of how it was  previously  split  (that
       is,  vertical then horizontal or horizontal then vertical), a new layer
       is created. The layer is used to group together the  regions  that  are
       split  the  same.  Normally,  as a user, you should not see nor have to
       worry about layers, but they will affect how some commands  (focus  and
       resize) behave.

       With  this current implementation of screen, scrolling data will appear
       much slower in a vertically split region than one  that  is  not.  This
       should  be  taken into consideration if you need to use system commands
       such as cat or tail -f.

       startup_message [ on | off ]

       Select whether you want to see the  copyright  notice  during  startup.
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       status [ top | up | down | bottom ] [ left | right ]

       The status window by default is in bottom-left corner. This command can
       move status messages to any corner of the screen. top is  the  same  as
       up, down is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the input buffer of the current window.
       This is like the paste command but with much less overhead.  Without  a
       parameter,  screen will prompt for a string to stuff.  You cannot paste
       large buffers with the stuff command. It is most useful for  key  bind‐
       ings. See also bindkey.

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute  the  user of a display. The command prompts for all parame‐
       ters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as  parameters,  they
       have  to be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched against
       the systems passwd database, the second password is matched against the
       screen password as set with the commands acladd or password.  Su may be
       useful for the screen administrator to test multiuser setups.  When the
       identification fails, the user has access to the commands available for
       user nobody.  These are detach, license, version, help and displays.


       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while  screen
       is  suspended.  This  feature  relies on the shell being able to do job

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       screen  by default.  But when no description for screen is installed in
       the local termcap or terminfo data base, you  set  $TERM  to  -  say  -
       vt100.  This  won't  do  much harm, as screen is VT100/ANSI compatible.
       The use of the term command is  discouraged  for  non-default  purpose.
       That  is,  one  may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100)
       for the next screen rlogin othermachine command. Use the command screen
       -T  vt100  rlogin  othermachine  rather  than setting and resetting the

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without  going
       through  all  the  hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.
       Plus, you can optionally customize the termcap generated for  the  win‐
       dows.   You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.

       If your system uses the terminfo database rather than  termcap,  screen
       will  understand  the `terminfo' command, which has the same effects as
       the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are  provided,  as  there
       are  subtle  syntactic  differences,  e.g. when parameter interpolation
       (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names  of  the  capabilities
       have to be used with the `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term‐
       cap syntax, you can use the command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just  a
       shorthand  for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands with identi‐
       cal arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should  be  affected  by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*' to match  all
       terminals that begin with vt.

       Each  tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated by
       `:'s) to be inserted at the start of  the  appropriate  termcap  entry,
       enhancing  it  or overriding existing values.  The first tweak modifies
       your terminal's termcap, and contains definitions  that  your  terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the win‐
       dow  termcaps,  and  should contain definitions that screen understands
       (see the VIRTUAL TERMINAL section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin  with  `xterm'  have  firm
       auto-margins  that  allow the last position on the screen to be updated
       (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to
       turn  entries  off).   Note  that we assume `LP' for all terminal names
       that start with vt, but only if you don't specify a termcap command for
       that terminal.
              termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies  the  firm-margined  `LP'  capability  for all terminals that
       begin with `vt', and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
       this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your  termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the  insert  mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im'  and  `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap will cause
       screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert  capability  in
       each  window's termcap.  Each window will also get the delete-character
       capability (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate  into
       a  line-update  for  the  terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support
       character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each  window's  termcap  entry,  you
       should  instead  set  the  $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.
       See the discussion on the VIRTUAL TERMINAL  in  this  manual,  and  the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time   [string]

       Uses  the  message  line to display the time of day, the host name, and
       the load averages over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this  is  available  on
       your system).  For window specific information, use info.

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it is described in the STRING ESCAPES chapter. Screen uses a default of
       "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci‐
       fied, screen prompts for one. This command was known as `aka' in previ‐
       ous releases.


       Unbind  all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run  as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is necessary to bind commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [ on | off [ on | off ]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings  sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omit‐
       ting the parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's -U option).  See also defutf8, which changes the default  set‐
       ting of a new window.

       vbell [ on | off ]

       Sets  the  visual  bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter
       toggles the setting. If vbell is switched on, but  your  terminal  does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the status
       line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support  of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per  default,  vbell  is  off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line  if
       the  window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set to on, but the
       terminal does not support a visual bell.  The default message is  Wuff,
       Wuff!!.  Without a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a  delay  in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [ on | off ]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a  win‐
       dow  is  created  (or  resurrected  from zombie state). Default is off.
       Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the  termi‐
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols
       columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable  terminal
       and  the  termcap  entries Z0 and Z1.  See the termcap command for more
       information. You can also specify a new height if you  want  to  change
       both  values.   The  -w  option  tells screen to leave the display size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [ -b ] [ -m ] [ -g ]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If  screen
       was  in a window group, screen will back out of the group and then dis‐
       play the windows in that group.  If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the list, so that the cur‐
       rent window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the order of the
       windows,  instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal
       most-recently-used list.  The -g option will show  the  windows  inside
       any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in windowlist:

       tab(@); l l.  _ k, C-p, or up@Move up one line.  _ j, C-n, or down@Move
       down one line.  _ C-g or escape@Exit windowlist.  _ C-a or home@Move to
       the first line.  _ C-e or end@Move to the last line.  _ C-u or C-d@Move
       one half page up or down.  _ C-b or C-f@Move one full page up or  down.
       _   0..9@Using   the  number  keys,  move  to  the  selected  line.   _
       mouseclick@T{ Move to the selected line. Available when  mousetrack  is
       set  to  on T} _ /@Search.  _ n@Repeat search in the forward direction.
       _ N@Repeat search in the backward direction.  _ m@Toggle MRU.  _ g@Tog‐
       gle  group  nesting.  _ a@All window view.  _ C-h or backspace@Back out
       the group.  _ ,@Switch numbers with the previous  window.   _  .@Switch
       numbers  with  the  next  window.   _  K@Kill  that window.  _ space or
       enter@Select that window.  _

       The table format can be changed with the string and title  option,  the
       title  is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by using
       the string setting. The default setting  is  Num  Name%=Flags  for  the
       title and %3n %t%=%f for the lines.  See the STRING ESCAPES chapter for
       more codes (e.g. color settings).

       Windowlist needs a region size of at least 10  characters  wide  and  6
       characters high in order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses  the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each win‐
       dow is listed by number with the name of process that has been  started
       in  the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a `*';
       the previous window is marked with a `-';  all  the  windows  that  are
       logged  in are marked with a `$'; a background window that has received
       a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that  is  being  moni‐
       tored  and has had activity occur is marked with an `@'; a window which
       has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows occupied  by
       other users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state are marked
       with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit  on  the  terminal's  status
       line  only  the  portion  around  the current window is displayed.  The
       optional string parameter follows the STRING ESCAPES format.  If string
       parameter is passed, the output size is unlimited.  The default command
       without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [ on | off ]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.  When  line-wrap  is
       on,  the second consecutive printable character output at the last col‐
       umn of a line will wrap to the start of  the  following  line.   As  an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state  of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought  of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
       on the same host. If an encoding  is  specified  the  paste  buffer  is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to /tmp/screen-exchange.

       writelock [ on | off | auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
       to  the  same  window at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode
       and grants exclusive input permission to the user who is the  first  to
       switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
       may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the  current
       window is disabled by the command writelock off. If the user issues the
       command writelock on he keeps  the  exclusive  write  permission  while
       switching to other windows.



       Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current

       zmodem [ off | auto | catch | pass ]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for  screen.  Screen  understands  two  different
       modes when it detects a zmodem request: pass and catch.  If the mode is
       set to pass, screen will relay all data to the attacher until  the  end
       of  the transmission is reached.  In catch mode screen acts as a zmodem
       endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If  the  mode  is
       set  to  auto,  screen  will  use  catch if the window is a tty (e.g. a
       serial line), otherwise it will use pass.

       You can define the templates screen uses in catch mode via  the  second
       and the third form.

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per  default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of  two  keys  is
       specified  to  the  zombie  command,  `dead' windows will remain in the
       list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a  window.  Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second key, screen will attempt to resurrect the  window.  The  process
       that  was initially running in the window will be launched again. Call‐
       ing zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus  mak‐
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As  the  zombie-setting  is  manipulated globally for all windows, this
       command should probably be called defzombie, but it isn't.

       Optionally you can put the word onerror after the keys. This will cause
       screen  to monitor exit status of the process running in the window. If
       it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears. Any  other  exit  value
       causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per  default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell) exits.  If  zombie  keys  are  defined
       (compare with above zombie command), it is possible to also set a time‐
       out when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead screen window.

       Screen displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a  mes‐
       sage  line.   While this line is distributed to appear at the bottom of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.   If  your terminal has a status line defined in its term‐
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of  the  current screen will be temporarily overwritten and output will
       be momentarily interrupted. The message line is  automatically  removed
       after  a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on termi‐
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used by an application running in  the
       current  window  by means of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and  '\\'  turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen  provides  three different window types. New windows are created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter  CUSTOMIZA‐
       TION).  The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window is created. The different window types are all special cases  of
       the  normal  type.  They have been added in order to allow screen to be
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       ·  The normal window contains a shell  (default,  if  no  parameter  is
          given)  or  any  other  system command that could be executed from a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       ·  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. /dev/ttya) is  speci‐
          fied  as  the first parameter, then the window is directly connected
          to this device.  This  window  type  is  similar  to  screen  cu  -l
          /dev/ttya.  Read and write access is required on the device node, an
          exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection  line
          as  busy.   An  optional  parameter is allowed consisting of a comma
          separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This  affects  transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables  (or  disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables)  software  flow-control  for  receiving

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You  may  want  to  specify  as many of these options as applicable.
          Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame‐
          ter values of the connection.  These values are system dependent and
          may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of  the  modem  control
          lines  in  the  status  line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR',
          `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the available  ioctl()'s  and
          system  header  files as well as the on the physical capabilities of
          the serial board.  Signals that  are  logical  low  (inactive)  have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When  the  CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem signals
          is placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or  TIOC‐
          SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe‐
          sis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
          (TxD)  to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected to
          be interpreted as break signal on the other side.  No data  is  sent
          and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       ·  If the first parameter is //telnet, the second parameter is expected
          to be a host name, and an optional third parameter may specify a TCP
          port  number  (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect to a server
          listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol to communi‐
          cate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connection
       in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA. The connection  is  in  `character  mode'  (default:
                     `line mode').

              t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the remote
                     host.  Screen sends the  name  screen  unless  instructed
                     otherwise (see also the command `term').

              w      NAWS.  The  remote  site  is  notified  about window size

              f      LFLOW. The remote host will send  flow  control  informa‐
                     tion.  (Ignored at the moment.)

              Additional  flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED
              and NEWENV).

              For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code  IAC
              BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

              This  window  type is only available if screen was compiled with
              the ENABLE_TELNET option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur‐
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of a window's  hardstatus  '^%'  ('^E')  is  used

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       e      encoding

       f      flags  of  the  window,  see windows for meanings of the various

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the cur‐
              rent  window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the window after
              the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed  only  if  a  '%'  escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad  the  string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a
              number is specified, pad  to  the  percentage  of  the  window's
              width.   A  '0'  qualifier  tells  screen to treat the number as
              absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the  last
              absolute  pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad rela‐
              tive to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the
              string  if  the specified position lies before the current posi‐
              tion. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
              screen  needs  to do truncation, it tries to do it in a way that
              the marked position gets moved to the  specified  percentage  of
              the  output  area.  (The  area starts from the last absolute pad
              position and ends with the position specified by the  truncation
              operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
              parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next }

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The  length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier  also  makes
       the  '='  escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes under‐
       stand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L'  to  generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is used to change  the  attributes  or  the
       color settings. Its format is [attribute modifier] [color description].
       The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type  indicator  if
       it can be confused with a color description. The following change types
       are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      /standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify‐
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized  versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can
       also use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or back‐
       ground color dependent on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode  is
       set,  the  background color is changed instead of the foreground color.
       If you don't like this, prefix the color with a .. If you want the same
       behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with a ..
       As  a  special  case, %{-} restores the attributes and colors that were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).


       G      set color to bright green

       +b r   use bold red

       = yd   clear  all  attributes,  write  in default color on yellow back‐

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window  and  trun‐
              cated  to  the  available width. The current window is displayed
              white on blue.  This can be used with hardstatus alwayslastline.

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
              is  set.  Also use a red background if this is the active focus.
              Useful for caption string.

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF  char‐
       acters,  which  allows  the user to send them to the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is that it will take longer for output from a normal program
       to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON  and
       XOFF characters are used to immediately pause the output of the current
       window.  You can still send these characters to  the  current  program,
       but  you  must use the appropriate two-character screen commands (typi‐
       cally C-a q (xon) and C-a s (xoff)).  The xon/xoff  commands  are  also
       useful  for  typing  C-s  and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or  the  defflow .screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be  toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the flow command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT  mode  (like  rlogin  does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the  display  until
       another  6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the inter‐
       rupt option (add the  interrupt  flag  to  the  flow  command  in  your
       .screenrc,  or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One  disadvantage  is  that  the virtual terminal's memory contains the
       non-flushed version of the output, which in rare cases can cause  minor
       inaccuracies  in  the  output.   For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with C-a l you would see  the  version  of
       the output you would have gotten without interrupt being on.  Also, you
       might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn  it
       off  automatically) when running a program that expects you to type the
       interrupt character as input, as it is possible to interrupt the output
       of  the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is
       enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with  C-a  l
       will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode you find
       more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the  windows  command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com‐
       mands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis‐
       tinguish various programs of the same name or to change  the  name  on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The  default  name for all shell windows can be set with the shelltitle
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a  screen  command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,    there    is    the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and  the  title command (C-a A).  The former can be
       output from an application to control the window's name under  software
       control,  and  the  latter  will prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys  with  the  title  command  to  set
       things  quickly  without  prompting.  Changing  title  by  this  escape
       sequence can be controlled by  defdynamictitle  and  dynamictitle  com‐

       Finally,  screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by set‐
       ting the window's name to search|name and  arranging  to  have  a  null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por‐
       tion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the  name  portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
       `:' screen will add what it believes to be the current command  running
       in  the  window  to the end of the window's shell name (e.g. name:cmd).
       Otherwise the current command name supersedes the shell name  while  it
       is running.

       Here's  how  it  works:   you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a  part  of  your  prompt.
       The  last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you speci‐
       fied for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,  screen
       will  use  the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name
       and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline  is  received
       from  the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If found,
       it will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as  the
       command  name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or '^'
       screen will use the first word on the  following  line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found  name.  This helps csh users get better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

                   screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of  the
       top command in window 2 named top rather than nice.

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These  commands  would  start  a  shell with the given shelltitle.  The
       title specified is an auto-title that would expect the prompt  and  the
       typed command to look something like the following:

                   /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '>  ' for the command name).  The window status
       would show the name trn while the command was running,  and  revert  to
       csh upon completion.

                   bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence C-a R
       to the su command and give it an auto-title name of  root:.   For  this
       auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here  the  user  typed the csh history command !em which ran the previ‐
       ously entered emacs command.  The window status would  show  root:emacs
       during  the execution of the command, and revert to simply root: at its

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it  would  prompt  you
       for  a  title  when  you type C-a o.  The second binding would clear an
       auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set  the
       current window's title to (unknown) (C-a u).

       One  thing  to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to
       your prompt is that some shells (like the csh) count all  the  non-con‐
       trol  characters  as  part  of the prompt's length.  If these invisible
       characters aren't a multiple of 8 then  backspacing  over  a  tab  will
       result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

                   set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence  <esc>[0000m  not  only  normalizes  the  character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac‐
       ters up to 8.  Bash  users  will  probably  want  to  echo  the  escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

                   PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used \134 to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each  window  in  a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other  ter‐
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen  tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible. But if your terminal lacks certain capabilities,  the  emula‐
       tion  may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the appli‐
       cations that some of the features are missing. This is  no  problem  on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo  this  method  fails.  Because of this, screen offers a way to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for  itself,  it  first
       looks for an entry named screen.<term>, where <term> is the contents of
       your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen tries screen  (or
       screen-w  if  the  terminal  is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even this
       entry cannot be found, vt100 is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor‐
       tant  feature  (e.g.  delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new
       termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named  screen.<dumbterm>)  in  which
       this  capability  has been disabled. If this entry is installed on your
       machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the  correct  term‐
       cap/terminfo  entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur‐
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win‐

       The actual set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal
       depends  on  the  capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If,
       for instance, the physical terminal does not support  underscore  mode,
       screen  does  not  put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into the window's
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabili‐
       ties  must  be  supported  by a terminal in order to run screen; namely
       scrolling, clear screen, and direct  cursor  addressing  (in  addition,
       screen  does  not  run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals that over-

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using  the
       termcap .screenrc command, or by defining the variable $SCREENCAP prior
       to startup.  When the latter is defined, its value will be copied  ver‐
       batim  into  each  window's  $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be the
       full terminal definition, or  a  filename  where  the  terminal  screen
       (and/or screen-w) is defined.

       Note  that  screen  honors the terminfo .screenrc command if the system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the  termcap  entry  for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup‐
       ported:  lock  shift  G0  (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock
       shift G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual  termi‐
       nal  is  created  or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
       through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the
       terminal uses to enable and start the  graphics  character  set  rather
       than  SI.   `E0'  is the corresponding replacement for SO. `C0' gives a
       character by character translation string that  is  used  during  semi-
       graphics  mode.  This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capabil‐

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term‐
       cap  entry,  applications running in a screen window can send output to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli‐
       cation  in one window sending output to a printer connected to the ter‐
       minal, while all other windows are still active (the  printer  port  is
       enabled  and  disabled  again  for  each  chunk of output).  As a side-
       effect, programs running in different windows can send  output  to  the
       printer  simultaneously.   Data sent to the printer is not displayed in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets
       selected, the display's hardstatus will be updated to  match  the  win‐
       dow's  hardstatus  line. If the display has no hardstatus the line will
       be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can  be
       changed    with   the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command   (APC):
       ESC_<string>ESC\.  As  a  convenience  for  xterm  users  the  sequence
       ESC]0..2;<string>^G is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities  are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the vir‐
       tual terminal if they can be efficiently implemented  by  the  physical
       terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM‐
       CAP variable if the terminal supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
       scrolling  regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the ses‐
       sion is reattached on a different terminal, as the  value  of  $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate  screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is a list of control sequences recognized by screen.  (V)
       and  (A)  indicate  VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions,

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

                                  Pn = 6                     Invisible

                                  Pn = 7                     Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control  String.   Outputs  a  string
                                  directly to the host terminal without inter‐

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,  xterm
                                  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if
                                  multi-user support is compiled into  screen.
                                  The  pseudo-user  :window:  is used to check
                                  the access control list. Use addacl :window:
                                  -rwx  #? to create a user with no rights and
                                  allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

                                  Pn = None or 0             From  Cursor   to
                                                             End of Screen

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of
                                                             Screen to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

                                  Pn = None or 0             From  Cursor   to
                                                             End of Line

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of
                                                             Line to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

                                  Ps = None or 0             Default Rendition

                                  Ps = 1                     Bold

                                  Ps = 2                (A)  Faint

                                  Ps = 3                (A)  Standout     Mode
                                                             (ANSI:     Itali‐

                                  Ps = 4                     Underlined

                                  Ps = 5                     Blinking

                                  Ps = 7                     Negative Image

                                  Ps = 22               (A)  Normal Intensity

                                  Ps = 23               (A)  Standout Mode off
                                                             (ANSI: Italicized

                                  Ps = 24               (A)  Not Underlined

                                  Ps = 25               (A)  Not Blinking

                                  Ps = 27               (A)  Positive Image

                                  Ps = 30               (A)  Foreground Black

                                  Ps = 31               (A)  Foreground Red

                                  Ps = 32               (A)  Foreground Green

                                  Ps = 33               (A)  Foreground Yellow

                                  Ps = 34               (A)  Foreground Blue

                                  Ps = 35               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 36               (A)  Foreground Cyan

                                  Ps = 37               (A)  Foreground White

                                  Ps = 39               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 40               (A)  Background Black

                                  Ps = ...

                                  Ps = 49               (A)  Background

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

                                  Pn = None or 0             Clear Tab at Cur‐
                                                             rent Position

                                  Pn = 3                     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

                                  Ps = 4                (A)  Insert Mode

                                  Ps = 20               (A)  Automatic   Line‐
                                                             feed Mode

                                  Ps = 34                    Normal     Cursor

                                  Ps = ?1               (V)  Application  Cur‐
                                                             sor Keys

                                  Ps = ?3               (V)  Change   Terminal
                                                             Width to 132 col‐

                                  Ps = ?5               (V)  Reverse Video

                                  Ps = ?6               (V)  Origin Mode

                                  Ps = ?7               (V)  Wrap Mode

                                  Ps = ?9                    X10  mouse track‐

                                  Ps = ?25              (V)  Visible Cursor

                                  Ps = ?47                   Alternate  Screen
                                                             (old xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1000            (V)  VT200       mouse

                                  Ps = ?1047                 Alternate  Screen
                                                             (new xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1049                 Alternate  Screen
                                                             (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to  `Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send   VT220   Secondary  Device  Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report

       In order to do a full VT100 emulation  screen  has  to  detect  that  a
       sequence  of characters in the input stream was generated by a keypress
       on the user's keyboard and insert  the  VT100  style  escape  sequence.
       Screen  has  a very flexible way of doing this by making it possible to
       map arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For  stan‐
       dard  VT100  emulation  the  command will always insert a string in the
       input buffer of the window (see also command stuff in the  command  ta‐
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
       reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible  to  bind  com‐
       mands  to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct
       binding after each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command  for  further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here  is the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what com‐
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       allbox; l l l l.   Key  name              Termcap  nameCommandApp  mode
       Cursor  up          ku\033[A\033OA Cursor down           kd\033[B\033OB
       Cursor               right          kr\033[C\033OC               Cursor
       left           kl\033[D\033OD Function key 0        k0\033[10~ Function
       key 1         k1\033OP  Function  key  2        k2\033OQ  Function  key
       3        k3\033OR   Function   key   4        k4\033OS   Function   key
       5        k5\033[15~  Function  key  6        k6\033[17~  Function   key
       7        k7\033[18~   Function  key  8        k8\033[19~  Function  key
       9        k9\033[20~  Function  key  10       k;\033[21~  Function   key
       11       F1\033[23~        Function       key       12       F2\033[24~
       Home                  kh\033[1~         End                   kH\033[4~
       Insert                kI\033[2~   Delete                kD\033[3~  Page
       up               kP\033[5~   Page   down             kN\033[6~   Keypad
       0              f00\033Op    Keypad    1              f11\033Oq   Keypad
       2              f22\033Or   Keypad    3              f33\033Os    Keypad
       4              f44\033Ot    Keypad    5              f55\033Ou   Keypad
       6              f66\033Ov   Keypad    7              f77\033Ow    Keypad
       8              f88\033Ox    Keypad    9              f99\033Oy   Keypad
       +              f++\033Ok   Keypad    -              f--\033Om    Keypad
       *              f**\033Oj    Keypad    /              f//\033Oo   Keypad
       =              fq=\033OX   Keypad    .              f..\033On    Keypad
       ,              f,,\033Ol Keypad enter          fe\015\033OM

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog‐
       nized by screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.   You  can  place
       these  capabilities  in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use
       them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in  your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic  margins').  Note
                    that  this  capability is obsolete because screen uses the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has the desired width  and
                    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal  doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct
                    to the application. Same as 'flow off'.  The  opposite  of
                    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.  Default  is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See  the  'autonuke'  command  for  more

       OL   (num)   Set  the  output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding'  com‐
                    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
                    This capability will almost always  be  set  to  '\E[3%dm'
                    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set  default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
                    on  the current font. More details follow in the next sec‐

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,  mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
                    by default).

       Screen  has  a  powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this fea‐
       ture  if  you  want  to  work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac‐
       ters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <desig‐
       nator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K':  German,  etc.)   to  strings.  Every
       <mapping>  describes  to  what string a single character will be trans‐
       lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
       a  lot  in  common  (for  example strings to switch to and from another
       charset). Each occurrence of '%' in <template>  gets  substituted  with
       the  <template-arg>  specified  together  with  the  character. If your
       strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a  template  and  place
       the  full  string  in  <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe‐
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This  tells  screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets  translated  to  '\E(K[\E(B'  and so on.  Note that this line gets
       parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is built,  there‐
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another  extension  was  added  to  allow  more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when‐
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset  switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a  part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will  be  sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of  lines  on  the  terminal  (overrides  termcap
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
                      /bin/sh).  See also shell .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the  screen  distribution
                                         package  for  private and global ini‐
                                         tialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc           screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /usr/local/etc/screenrc
       /local/screens/S-<login>          Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output func‐
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen   `interprocess  communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output  log  files created by the log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long  time  maintained  and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul
       Habib Chowdhury. Since 2015 maintained and developed by Amadeusz  Slaw‐
       inski  <>  and Alexander Naumov <alexander_naumov@open‐>.

       Copyright (c) 2018-2022
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
            Micah Cowan <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under  the  terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or  (at  your  option)  any
       later version.
       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;  without  even  the  implied  warranty  of  MER‐
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  this  program  (see  the file COPYING); if not, write to the Free
       Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place  -  Suite  330,  Boston,  MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Maarten ter Huurne <>,
       Jussi Kukkonen <>,
       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger <>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal <>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W. Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.

       The  latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp from or any other GNU distribution  site.  The  home
       page of screen is and the git
       repo is  If you  want  to
       help, send a note to

       ·  `dm'  (delete  mode)  and  `xs'  are not handled correctly (they are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       ·  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
          this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       ·  It  is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when
          reattaching under a different terminal type.

       ·  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding  extra
          capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       ·  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       ·  Screen  must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems
          in order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty  device
          file  for  each  window.  Special permission may also be required to
          write the file /etc/utmp.

       ·  Entries in /etc/utmp are not removed  when  screen  is  killed  with
          SIGKILL.   This  will  cause  some  programs (like "w" or "rwho") to
          advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       ·  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       ·  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or  quit)  unless  the device driver is configured to send a HANGUP
          signal.  To detach a screen session use the -D or  -d  command  line

       ·  If  a  password  is  set,  the  command line options -d and -D still
          detach a session without asking.

       ·  Both breaktype and defbreaktype change the break  generating  method
          used  by all terminal devices. The first should change a window spe‐
          cific setting, where the latter should change only the  default  for
          new windows.

       ·  When  attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is
          not sourced. Each user's personal settings have to  be  included  in
          the  .screenrc  file from which the session is booted, or have to be
          changed manually.

       ·  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the

       Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza to

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1), tty(4), pty(7)

GNU Screen 4.9.0                  2022 Jan 30                        SCREEN(1)
맨 페이지 내용의 저작권은 맨 페이지 작성자에게 있습니다.