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CDDA2WAV(1)                 General Commands Manual                CDDA2WAV(1)

       cdda2wav - dumps CD audio data into sound files with extra data verifi‐

       cdda2wav [ options ][ dev=device ] [file(s) or directories]

       cdda2wav can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives which are  capable
       of reading audio data digitally via SCSI (CDDA).

       As  cdda2wav  implements  strategies  to work around typical defects on
       audio CDs it reads many disks that cannot be read  by  other  software.
       As  cdda2wav can use libparanoia (see -paranoia option below) to verify
       the data that has been read from the medium, it delivers superior qual‐
       ity even if the medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems occur.

       As  cdda2wav  may  be  directed  to  write the audio data to stdout, it
       writes  all  its  informational  output  to  stderr  by  default.   See
       out-fd=descriptor option below.

   Default settings
       Cdda2wav defaults to read the first audio track from the medium and the
       default  verbose  level  is  set  to  -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles  and
       cdda2wav  by  default  writes *.inf files.  To extract all audio tracks
       with quality verification, it is recommended to call:

       cdda2wav -vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B

       For hints on  how  to  specify  better  parameters  manually,  see  the
       paraopts= description below.

   Device naming
       Most  users do not need to care about device naming.  If no dev= option
       was specified, cdda2wav implements auto target  support  and  automagi‐
       cally  finds  the drive when exactly one CD-ROM type drive is available
       in the system.  When more than one CD-ROM type drive exists, a list  of
       possible device name parameters may be retrieved with cdda2wav -scanbus
       or from the target example from the output of cdda2wav  dev=help,  then
       the dev= parameter may be set based on the device listing.

       The device parameter to the dev= option explained below refers to scsi‐
       bus/target/lun   of   the   CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder.     If    a    file
       /etc/default/cdrecord exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also
       be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).

   Informative options

       -help  display version information for cdda2wav on standard output.

              display version and Copyright information.

   Audio options
       -a divider

       -divider divider
              sets rate to 44100Hz / divider.  Possible values are listed with
              the -R option.

              The default divider value is 1.



              copies each track into a separate file.

              The default is not to extract all tracks.

       -b bits

       -bits-per-sample bits
              sets bits per sample per channel: 8, 12 or 16.

              The default is 16 bits per sample.

       -c channels

       -channels channels

              1      for mono recording

              2      for stereo recording

              s      for stereo recording with both channels swapped

              The default is stereo recording.

       -C endianess

       -cdrom-endianess endianess
              sets   endianess  of  the  input  samples  to  'little',  'big',
              'machine' or 'guess' to override defaults.  The value  'machine'
              or  'host' is evaluated as the actual byte order of the host CPU
              in the current OS.

              The default is to detect cdrom endianess automatically.

              Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file.  A CUE file that completely
              follows  the CDRWIN documentation can only be used to create 1:1
              copies if there is a single file with audio data for  the  whole
              disk.   The  *.inf file format implements more audio CD features
              than the CDRWIN CUE format and it allows to create 1:1 copies if
              there is one audio data file per track.  Use the CUE file format
              for meta data only if you really need this format.

              To allow cdda2wav to create CUE files, you must also specify  -t
              all  to  switch cdda2wav into a mode that creates a single audio
              data file for the whole CD.


              undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.

              The default is to keep the audio data in the same  state  as  on
              the  medium  and  to  mark  the  pre-emphasis state in the *.inf

       -L cddb mode

       -cddb cddb mode
              does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the cddb id.
              The  parameter  cddb  mode defines how multiple entries shall be

              center box; r | l.  Parameter Description  _  -1   disable  cddb
              queries.  This  is the default.  0    interactive mode. The user
              selects the entry to use.  1    first fit mode. The first  entry
              is taken unconditionally.

              sets the server to be contacted for title lookups.

              sets the port number to be used for title lookups.

       -d duration

       -duration duration
              sets  recording time in seconds or frames (sectors).  Frames are
              indicated by a 'f' suffix (e.g. 75f for 75 sectors).  0 sets the
              time for whole track.

              The default is to extract the whole track.

       -E endianess

       -output-endianess endianess
              sets  endianess  of  the  output  samples  to 'little', 'big' or
              'machine' to override the default which is 'network byte  order'
              (big endian).  The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated as the
              actual byte order of the host CPU in the current OS.


              finds extreme amplitudes in samples.


              finds if input samples are in mono.


       -gui   reformats the output for parsing by gui frontends.


              does not write info file, cddb file or cdtext file.

       -i index

       -index index
              selects the start index.


              does not write to a file, it just gives  information  about  the


       -md5   enables  calculation  of  MD-5 checksum for all audio bytes from
              the beginning of a track. The audio header is skipped when  cal‐
              culating  the MD-5 checksum to allow comparison of MD-5 sums for
              files with different header types.


       -mono  sets to mono recording.

              Ignore hidden tracks on the CD.   By  default,  cdda2wav  checks
              whether  there  might  be  a  hidden track before track 1.  This
              check may take a few seconds  and  thus  can  be  disabled  with


              does not write to a file, it just reads (e.g. for debugging pur‐
              poses).  If this option is used together with the -e option, the
              CD  is  read  and  the audio content is played back to the sound
              device without creating output files with audio data.

              By default, cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields  from  tracks
              with  the related CD-Text field (when defined) for the whole CD.
              If the option -no-textdefaults  is  used,  cdda2wav  leaves  the
              track related CD-Text fields empty in such a case.

              If  cdda2wav encounters useful CD-Text information on the CD, it
              writes a .cdtext file.  The option -no-textfile allows  to  sup‐
              press the creation of the .cdtext file.

       -o offset

       -offset offset
              starts offset sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents
              1/75 seconds).

       -O audiotype

       -output-format audiotype
              can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi aiff files) or
              aifc  (for  apple/sgi  aifc files) or au or sun (for sun .au PCM
              files) or cdr or raw (for headerless files to  be  used  for  cd

              The default output format is now wav for all platforms as it has
              become the most common format.  Note  that  former  versions  of
              cdda2wav  made an exception and by default created au type files
              on Solaris.

       -p percentage

       -playback-realtime percentage
              changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.

       -P sectors

       -set-overlap sectors
              sets the initial number of overlap sectors for jitter correction
              in  non-paranoia  mode.  Note  that overlapped reads are handled
              differently in paranoia mode.

              The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.

              use the paranoia library as a filter on top of  cdda2wav's  rou‐
              tines  for  reading.  In paranoia mode, the latency time for the
              -interactive mode and with a read ahead buffer size of  150..300
              sectors, is increased to typically 5..10 seconds. This is due to
              the paranoia code reading everything at least twice  and  having
              to empty the cache RAM of the CD-ROM drive.

              The  size of the read ahead area must be larger than the size of
              the RAM of the drive in order to allow libparanoia to empty  the
              cache  RAM  in the drive.  As the size of the read ahead area in
              former times was a constant compiled into the libparanoia  code,
              the  extract quality with using libparanoia was no longer suffi‐
              cient with drives built after year 2000. See readahead=  parame‐
              ter to the paraopts= option below.

              If  the  paranoia  mode  is used, cdda2wav displays some quality
              statistics for each extracted track.  The following items appear
              in the list:

              center  box; r | l.  Value     Description _ rderr     Number of
              hard read errors skip Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted
              retries  atom Number  of  intra  sector  jitters (frame jitters)
              detected  edge Number  of  jitters  between   sectors   detected
              drop Number  of  dropped  bytes  fixed  dup  Number of duplicate
              bytes fixed drift     Number of drifts detected  c2   Number  of
              sectors with C2 errors reads     Number of readahead blocks read
              and percentage to track size overlap   Number of dynamic overlap
              size raises

              The quality indicators in detail:

              rderr  The  number of failed low level read requests.  Each read
                     appears  for  sectors-per-request  sectors.    The   sec‐
                     tors-per-request  size  is  typically  less than the read
                     ahead size.

              skip   The number of sectors that have been skipped because  the
                     read  error  retry  count was exhausted and no successful
                     read was possible.

              atom   The number of jitters that have been detected inside sec‐
                     tors.   This should never happen, but whenever a non-cor‐
                     rectable C2 error occurs, the drive could lose streaming.
                     Increasing  the  read  ahead  buffer  size may reduce the
                     results from atom errors.

              edge   The number of jitters that  have  been  detected  at  the
                     edges  of  sectors.  This could be caused by sector posi‐
                     tioning errors.  Increasing the read  ahead  buffer  size
                     may reduce the results from edge errors.

              drop   The  number  of dropped samples.  This could be caused by
                     sector positioning errors.   Increasing  the  read  ahead
                     buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.

              dup    Duplicated  samples could be caused by sector positioning
                     errors like dripped samples.  Increasing the  read  ahead
                     buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.

              drift  This  is  the amount of drifts detected when checking the
                     overlap area.

              c2     The number of sectors with C2 errors  seen  when  reading
                     the  last  track.  As the paranoia code tends to read bad
                     parts of the disk many  times,  this  number  usually  is
                     above  the number that would appear when the disk is just
                     read once in a linear way.  Use  paraopts=disable,c2check
                     to see a number that represents the state of the medium.

              reads  The  number  of read ahead blocks read for the last track
                     by the upper layer and the percentage of  the  amount  of
                     data  read  compared to the size of the track.  This per‐
                     centage is typically 200% because the paranoia code reads
                     all data at least twice. If there is a lot of overlap and
                     a lof of read problems, this percentage raises.

                     The number the overlap size has been raised. This happens
                     when  the  overlap size is below the maximum overlap size
                     and errors in the overlap area are detected.

              List is a comma separated list of suboptions passed to the para‐
              noia library.

              center box; r | l.  Option    Description _ help lists all para‐
              noia options.  disable   disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia  is
              still being used no-verify switches verify off, and static over‐
              lap on retries=amount set the number of maximum retries per sec‐
              tor readahead=amount    set the number of sectors to use for the
              read ahead buffer overlap=amount set the number of sectors  used
              for static overlap minoverlap=amt set the min. number of sectors
              for dynamic overlap maxoverlap=amt set the max. number  of  sec‐
              tors  for dynamic overlap c2check   check C2 pointers from drive
              to rate quality  proof     set  minoverlap=20,retries=200,reada‐

              The paraopts= parameters in detail:

                     The  paranoia  corrections  are disabled, but the data is
                     still directed through the code from  libparanoia.   This
                     allows  to  switch on C2 error detection and to check the
                     C2 error statistics for a CD.

                     This switches off the verification of the data  integrity
                     in the overlap area and turns off dynamic overlap control
                     in favor of a static overlap value.

                     Set the maximum number of read retries per sector in case
                     of hard read errors. The default value for this parameter
                     is 20.  This is the same value as used by the old cdpara‐
                     noia(1) command.

                     Set  the number of sectors to use for the read ahead buf‐
                     fer.  Except when at the end of the  medium,  libparanoia
                     never requests less than this amount of data from the low
                     level I/O code.  The size of the  read  ahead  buffer  is
                     usually  bigger than the maximum size for a single DMA in
                     the system. For this reason,  libparanoia  calls  several
                     read  operations  in order to fill the read ahead buffer.
                     The default value used by cdda2wav is 400, which is  more
                     than  the 150 sectors that cdparanoia(1) uses but still a
                     compromise for not requiring too much memory.

                     It is recommended to use a read ahead buffer size that is
                     not  less  than  the RAM size in the CD-ROM drive. If the
                     drive has more than 1MB of RAM, use 425 sectors per MB of
                     RAM in the drive.

                     Note  that  as long as the readahead= value is too small,
                     the extract quality varies a lot with the value  in  use.
                     The  value  used  by  cdparanoia(1)  may cause an extract
                     quality below what cdda2wav delivers without libparanoia.

                     Set the number of sectors used for static  overlap.  This
                     switches  dynamic  overlap off.  It is recommended not to
                     use static overlapping. To get a larger overlapping, bet‐
                     ter use a higher minoverlap= value.

                     Set  the  minimum  number of sectors for dynamic overlap.
                     The default value used by cdda2wav is 0.5, this  is  more
                     than the default used by cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.

                     For old drives that do not support accurate streaming, it
                     is not recommended to specify a minoverlap= value greater
                     or equal to the maximal DMA size.

                     For  best  results  on other drives, it is recommended to
                     use a minoverlap= value that is not less than half of the
                     readahead size.

                     The  extract  quality  varies  a lot with the minoverlap=
                     value,  but  increasing  the  value  also  increases  the
                     extract time.

                     Set  the  maximum  number of sectors for dynamic overlap.
                     If maxoverlap= was not specified and a large  minoverlap=
                     value was specified, this results in a quasi static over‐
                     lapping.  The default value used by cda2wav is 32.

                     Turn on C2 error checking.  For now, this just results in
                     printing C2 error statistics.

              proof  This option is a macro for better extract parameters than
                     used by default.  The macro proof expands to:


                     If sectors-per-request1 is more than 20, 20  is  used  as
                     minimal overlap value.

                     The  parameters  used by proof are still not the best and
                     there is no best parameter set for all cases.   A  larger
                     value for the read ahead buffer size may e.g be too large
                     for the available RAM in the system and  the  best  value
                     for the minimal overlap depends on whether the drive sup‐
                     ports exact streaming.  It is recommended to run  experi‐
                     ments  with  larger values for the parameters minoverlap=
                     and readahead= to get the best  results  for  a  specific


       -quiet quiet operation, no screen output.

       -r rate

       -rate rate
              sets  rate  in  samples  per second.  Possible values are listed
              with the -R option.


              shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.

       -S speed

       -speed speed
              sets the cdrom device to one of the selectable speeds for  read‐
              ing.   For  maximum extraction quality, it is recommended to use
              speed values of 8 or below.

              The default is to extract at maximum speed.


              sets to stereo recording.

       -start-sector sector
              set an absolute start sector. This option is mutually  exclusive
              to -track and -offset.

       -t track[+endtrack]

       -track track[+endtrack]

       -track track+max

       -track all
              selects the start track and optionally the end track.  If -t all
              is used, all audio tracks are selected.  If  -t 2+max  is  used,
              all audio tracks starting with track 2 are selected.

       -v itemlist

       -verbose-level itemlist
              Retrieves and prints verbose information about the CD.  Level is
              a list of comma separated suboptions.  Each  suboption  controls
              the type of information to be reported.

              center  box;  r  |  l.   Suboption Description _ !    invert the
              meaning of the following string not  invert the meaning  of  the
              following  string  disable   no  information  is given, warnings
              appear however all  all information is given toc  show table  of
              contents  summary   show  a  summary of the recording parameters
              indices   determine and display index offsets catalog   retrieve
              and  display the media catalog number MCN mcn  retrieve and dis‐
              play the media catalog number MCN trackid   retrieve and display
              all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC isrc retrieve and dis‐
              play all Intern. Standard Recording  Codes  ISRC  sectors   show
              the  table  of  contents in start sector notation titles    show
              the table of contents with track titles (when available)  audio-
              tracks   list the audio tracks and their start sectors

              The default verbose-level is toc,summary,sectors,titles .


       -wait  waits for signal, then start recording.


       -max   sets maximum (CD) quality.

   SCSI options

       -D device

       -device device
              uses  device  as  the  source  for  CDDA  reading.   For example
              /dev/cdrom for the cooked_ioctl interface and Bus,ID,Lun for the
              generic_scsi  interface.  The  device has to correspond with the
              interface setting if given (see -I and -interface option below).

              If no -I or -interface option has been specified, the  interface
              setting  is  derived  from the device name syntax. A device name
              that is in  the  form  Bus,ID,Lun  or  contains  a  colon  (':')
              defaults to the generic_scsi interface.

              Using the cooked_ioctl is not recommended as this makes cdda2wav
              mainly depend on the audio extraction quality of  the  operating
              system  which  is  usually extremely bad. For this reason, avoid
              using parameters like dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.

              The setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE is  overrid‐
              den by this option.

              If  no  dev=  option is present, or if the dev= option only con‐
              tains a transport specifier but no address,  cdda2wav  tries  to
              scan  the  SCSI address space for CD-ROM drives.  If exactly one
              is found, this is used by default.

              For more information, see the description  of  the  dev=  option
              from cdrecord(1).


              Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.



       kd=#   Set  the  kernel debug level for the kernel driver called by the
              libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer. This option is  not  supported
              on all platforms.

              Scan  all  SCSI  devices on all SCSI buses and print the inquiry
              strings. This option may be used to find  SCSI  address  of  the
              CD/DVD-Recorder  on a system.  The numbers printed out as labels
              are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI  command  to  #.
              The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
              or sdd bs=#.

              If no ts= option has been  specified,  cdda2wav  defaults  to  a
              transfer  size  of  3 MB.  If  libscg gets lower values from the
              operating system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that
              is  possible  with  the current operating system.  Sometimes, it
              may help to further reduce the transfer size or to  enhance  it,
              but  note that it may take a long time to find a better value by
              experimenting with the ts= option.

              Some operating systems  return  wrong  values  for  the  maximum
              transfer  size.   If the transfer totally hangs or resets occur,
              it may be appropriate to reduce the transfer size to  less  than
              64 kB or even less than 32 kB.


              enable  SCSI command logging to the console. This is mainly used
              for debugging.


              suppress SCSI command error reports  to  the  console.  This  is
              mainly used for guis.

   OS Interface options
       -A auxdevice

       -auxdevice auxdevice
              uses  auxdevice  as CDROM drive to allow to send the CDROMMULTI‐
              SESSION ioctl on Linux although the generic_scsi interface is in

       -I interface

       -interface interface
              specifies the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:

                     for sending SCSI commands directly to the drive.

                     for  using  the  programming interface supplied by the OS

              The latter is not recommended as it gives lower quality and only
              works on a limited number of platforms.

              Go  into  interactive  mode  that  reads commands from stdin and
              writes the textual replies to stderr,  or  the  file  descriptor
              specified  by  the out-fd option.  This mode has been introduced
              mainly to allow cdrecord to be called by gstreamer plugins.

              If cdda2wav was called with the option  -interactive,  it  reads
              the  TOC  from the medium and then waits for command input as if
              it has been issued a stop command. If the next command is a cont
              command,  then  cdda2wav  extracts  the  whole audio part of the
              medium.  If the next command is a read  command,  then  cdda2wav
              starts  extracting  from  the position that was indicated by the
              read command parameter.

              center  box;  c  |  l  |  l  c  |  l  |  l.    Command   Parame‐
              ters     Description  _ cont      continue processing at current
              position exit      exit processing help      print command  help
              and wait for input quit      exit processing read sectors sector
              number    read sectors starting from sector  number  read tracks
              track   number     read   sectors  starting  from  track  number
              stop      stop processing and wait for new input

              Redirect informational output to the file  descriptor  named  by
              descriptor.   The  parameter  descriptor  specifies  a UNIX file
              descriptor number.  By  default,  cdda2wav  sends  informational
              output  to  stderr.   Redirecting  the informational output to a
              different file descriptor helps guis  and  other  programs  that
              call cdda2wav via pipes.

              In case that the file name for the audio data file is "-", redi‐
              rect audio output to the file descriptor  named  by  descriptor.
              The  parameter  descriptor specifies a UNIX file descriptor num‐
              ber.  By default, cdda2wav sends audio data  to  stdout  if  the
              output  is not directed into a file.  Redirecting the audio out‐
              put to a different file descriptor helps guis and other programs
              that call cdda2wav via pipes.

              Do  not  fork  for  extended  buffering. If -no-fork is used and
              cdda2wav is used to play back audio CDs in  paranoia  mode,  the
              playback  may  be  interrupted due to lack of buffering.  On the
              other hand, allowing cdda2wav to fork will increase the  latency
              time for the -interactive mode.


       -echo  copies  audio  data  to the operating system's sound device e.g.

              set an alternate sound device to use for -e.

       -n sectors

       -sectors-per-request sectors
              reads sectors per request.

       -l buffers

       -buffers-in-ring buffers
              uses a ring buffer with buffers total.

       Some defaults for cdda2wav are compiled in and depend on  the  Makefile
       others on the environment variable settings.

              is  used to set the device name. The device naming is compatible
              with cdrecord(1).

              is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

              is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

       RSH    If the RSH environment variable is present, the  remote  connec‐
              tion  will not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the program
              pointed to by RSH.   Use  e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh  to  create  a
              secure shell connection.

              Note  that  this  forces cdda2wav to create a pipe to the rsh(1)
              program and disallows cdda2wav to directly  access  the  network
              socket to the remote server.  This makes it impossible to set up
              performance parameters and slows down the connection compared to
              a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If  the  RSCSI  environment variable is present, the remote SCSI
              server will not be the program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the
              program  pointed  to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server
              program name will be ignored if you log in using an account that
              has  been  created  with  a  remote SCSI server program as login

       cdda2wav uses the following exit codes to indicate various  degrees  of

       center box; r | l.  Exitcode  Description _ 0    no errors encountered,
       successful operation.  1    usage or syntax error. cdda2wav got  incon‐
       sistent  arguments.  2    permission (un)set errors. permission changes
       failed.  3    read  errors  on  the  cdrom/burner  device  encountered.
       4    write  errors  while  writing one of the output files encountered.
       5    errors    with    soundcard    handling    (initialization/write).
       6    errors  with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).
       7    pipe communication errors encountered (in forked mode).  8    sig‐
       nal handler installation errors encountered.  9    allocation of shared
       memory failed (in forked mode).  10   dynamic  heap  memory  allocation
       failed.   11   errors  on the audio cd medium encountered.  12   device
       open error in ioctl handling detected.  13   race  condition  in  ioctl
       interface  handling  detected.  14   error in ioctl() operation encoun‐
       tered.   15   internal  error  encountered.   Please   report   back!!!
       16   error  in  semaphore  operation  encountered  (install / request).
       17   could not get the scsi transfer  buffer.   18   could  not  create
       pipes for process communication (in forked mode).

       cdda2wav is able to read parts of an audio CD or multimedia CDROM (con‐
       taining audio parts) directly digitally. These parts can be written  to
       a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.

       cdda2wav  stands  for  CDDA  to WAV (where CDDA stands for compact disc
       digital audio and WAV is a sound sample format introduced  by  MS  Win‐
       dows).   It  allows copying CDDA audio data from the CDROM drive into a
       file in WAV or other formats.

       Some versions of cdda2wav may try to get  higher  real-time  scheduling
       priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities
       are available for super users and are higher  than  those  of  'normal'
       processes. Thus delays are minimized.

       If  you  only have one CDROM and it is loaded with an audio CD, you may
       simply invoke cdda2wav and it will  create  the  sound  file  audio.wav
       recording the whole track beginning with track 1 in stereo at 16 bit at
       44100 Hz sample rate, if your file system has enough space free.   Oth‐
       erwise recording time will be limited. For details see files README and

       If you have more then one CD-ROM type drive in the system, you need  to
       specify the dev= option.

       Most  of the options are used to control the format of the WAV file. In
       the following text most of them are discussed in a more verbose way.

   Select Device
       dev=device selects the CDROM drive device to be  used.   The  specifier
       given should correspond to the selected interface (see below).  For the
       cooked_ioctl interface this is the cdrom device descriptor.   The  SCSI
       devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are addressed with
       their SCSI-Bus, SCSI-Id, and  SCSI-Lun  instead  of  the  generic  SCSI
       device  descriptor.   One  example for a SCSI CDROM drive on bus 0 with
       SCSI ID 3 and lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.

   Select Auxiliary device
       -A auxdevice may be needed in some rare cases  for  CD-Extra  handling.
       Cdda2wav  usually  has  no problem to get the multi-session information
       for CD-Extra using raw SCSI commands.  For Non-SCSI-CDROM  drives  this
       is  the same device as given by dev= (see above). For SCSI-CDROM drives
       it is the CDROM drive (SCSI) device (i.e.  /dev/sr0 ) corresponding  to
       the  SCSI  device  (i.e.   0,3,0 ). It has to match the device used for

   Select Interface
       -I interface selects the CDROM drive communication method.  This inter‐
       face  method  is typically automatically selected from the device name.
       For SCSI drives generic_scsi is used (cooked_ioctl may not be available
       for  all devices).  Valid names are generic_scsi and cooked_ioctl.  The
       first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter uses the ioctl of the
       CDROM driver. The latter variant works only when the kernel driver sup‐
       ports CDDA reading. This entry has to match the selected  CDROM  device
       (see above).

   Enable echo to soundcard
       -e  copies audio data to the sound card while recording, so you hear it
       nearly simultaneously.  The  soundcard  gets  the  same  data  that  is
       recorded.  This  is time critical, so it works best with the -q option.
       To use cdda2wav as a pseudo CD player without recording in a  file  you
       could use

       cdda2wav -q -e -t2 -d0 -N

       to play the whole second track or

       cdda2wav -q -e -B -N

       to play the whole disk.  This feature reduces the recording speed to at
       most onefold speed.

   Change pitch of echoed audio
       -p percentage changes the pitch of all audio echoed to  a  sound  card.
       Only  the copy to the soundcard is affected, the recorded audio samples
       in a file remain the same.  Normal pitch,  which  is  the  default,  is
       given  by 100.  Lower percentages correspond to lower pitches, i.e.  -p
       50 transposes the audio output one octave lower.  See also  the  script
       pitchplay as an example. This option was contributed by Raul Sobon.

   Select mono or stereo recording
       -m  or -c 1 selects mono recording (both stereo channels are mixed), -s
       or -c 2 or -c s selects stereo recording. Parameter s  will  swap  both
       sound channels.

   Select maximum quality
       -x  will  set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 kHz (full CD quality).
       Note that other format options given later can change this setting.

   Select sample quality
       -b 8 specifies 8 bit (1 Byte) for each sample in each  channel;  -b  12
       specifies 12 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 16 speci‐
       fies 16 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel (Ensure that  your
       sample player or sound card is capable of playing 12-bit or 16-bit sam‐
       ples). Selecting 12 or 16 bits doubles file size.  12-bit  samples  are
       aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste some disk space.

   Select sample rate
       -r  samplerate  selects  a  sample  rate.  samplerate can be in a range
       between 900 and 44100. Option -R lists all available rates.

   Select sample rate divider
       -a divider selects a sample rate divider.  divider can  be  from  1  to
       50.5 in steps of 0.5.  Option -R lists all available rates.

       To  make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums over
       n samples (where n is the specific dividend). So for 22050 Hertz output
       we  have  to  sum  over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have to sum over 49
       samples.  This cancels higher frequencies. Standard sector size  of  an
       audio  CD  (ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to
       finish summing for an output sample  at  sector  boundaries  the  rates
       above  have  to  be  chosen.   Arbitrary sampling rates in high quality
       would require some interpolation scheme, which needs much more  sophis‐
       ticated programming.

   List a table of all sampling rates
       -R  shows  a  list of all sample rates and their dividers. Dividers can
       range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of 0.5.

   Select start track and optionally end track
       -t n+m selects n as the start track and optionally m as the last  track
       of a range to be recorded.  These tracks must be from the table of con‐
       tents.  This sets the  track  where  recording  begins.  Recording  can
       advance  through  the following tracks as well (limited by the optional
       end track or otherwise depending on recording time). Whether  one  file
       or  different  files  are  then  created  depends on the -B option (see

   Select start index
       -i n selects the index to start recording with.  Indices other  than  1
       will  invoke  the  index scanner, which will take some time to find the
       correct start position.  An  offset  may  be  given  additionally  (see

   Set recording duration
       -d   n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording time for whole
       track if n is zero. In order to specify the duration  in  frames  (sec‐
       tors)  also,  the argument can have an appended 'f'. Then the numerical
       argument is to be  taken  as  frames  (sectors)  rather  than  seconds.
       Please note that if track ranges are being used they define the record‐
       ing time as well thus overriding any -d option specified times.

       Recording time is defined as the time the generated  sample  will  play
       (at  the defined sample rate). Since it's related to the amount of gen‐
       erated samples, it's not the time of the sampling process itself (which
       can  be  less  or  more).   It's neither strictly coupled with the time
       information on the audio CD (shown by your hifi  CD  player).   Differ‐
       ences  can occur by the usage of the -o option (see below). Notice that
       recording time will be shortened,  unless  enough  disk  space  exists.
       Recording  can  be  aborted  at anytime by pressing the break character
       (signal SIGQUIT).

   Record all tracks of a complete audio CD in separate files
       -B copies each track into a separate file. A base name  can  be  given.
       File names have an appended track number and an extension corresponding
       to the audio format. To record all audio tracks of a CD, use  a  suffi‐
       cient high duration (i.e. -d99999).

   Set start sector offset
       -o  sectors  increments  start sector of the track by sectors.  By this
       option you are able to skip a certain amount  at  the  beginning  of  a
       track  so  you can pick exactly the part you want. Each sector runs for
       1/75 seconds, so you have very fine control. If your offset is so  high
       that  it  would  not  fit  into the current track, a warning message is
       issued and the offset is ignored.  Recording time is not reduced.   (To
       skip  introductory  quiet passages automagically, use the -w option see

   Wait for signal option
       -w Turning on this option will suppress all silent output  at  startup,
       reducing possibly file size.  cdda2wav will watch for any signal in the
       output signal and switches on writing to file.

   Find extreme samples
       -F Turning on this option will display the most negative and  the  most
       positive  sample  value  found during recording for both channels. This
       can be useful for readjusting the volume.  The  values  shown  are  not
       reset  at  track  boundaries, they cover the complete sampling process.
       They are taken from the original samples and have the same format (i.e.
       they are independent of the selected output format).

   Find if input samples are in mono
       -G  If  this  option  is given, input samples for both channels will be
       compared. At the end of the program the result is printed.  Differences
       in the channels indicate stereo, otherwise when both channels are equal
       it will indicate mono.

   Undo the pre-emphasis in the input samples
       -T Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response
       called  pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings. The
       correction can be seen in the flags of the Table Of Contents often. But
       there  are  recordings, that show this setting only in the subchannels.
       If this option is given, the index scanner will be started, which reads
       the  q-subchannel of each track. If pre-emphasis is indicated in the q-
       subchannel of a track, but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed
       to  be  present,  and subsequently a reverse filtering is done for this
       track before the samples are written into the audio file.

   Set audio format
       -O  audiotype can be wav (for wav files) or au  or  sun  (for  sun  PCM
       files)  or cdr or raw (for headerless files to be used for cd writers).
       All file samples are coded in linear pulse code modulation (as done  in
       the  audio compact disc format). This holds for all audio formats.  Wav
       files are compatible to Wind*ws sound files,  they  have  lsb,msb  byte
       order which is the opposite byte order to the one used on the audio cd.
       The default filename extension is '.wav'.  Sun type files are not  like
       the  older  common logarithmically coded .au files, but instead as men‐
       tioned above linear PCM is used. The byte order is msb,lsb to  be  com‐
       patible.  The  default  filename  extension is '.au'.  The AIFF and the
       newer variant AIFC from the Apple/SGI  world  store  their  samples  in
       bigendian  format  (msb,lsb).  In AIFC no compression is used.  Finally
       the easiest 'format', the cdr aka raw format. It is done per default in
       msb,lsb  byte  order  to  satisfy  the order wanted by most cd writers.
       Since there is no header information in this format, the sample parame‐
       ters  can  only  be identified by playing the samples on a soundcard or
       similar. The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

   Select cdrom drive reading speed
       -S  speed allows to switch the cdrom drive to a certain speed in  order
       to  reduce  read  errors.  The  argument is transferred verbatim to the
       drive.  Details depend very much on the cdrom drives.  An argument of 0
       for example is often the default speed of the drive, a value of 1 often
       selects single speed.

   Enable MD5 checksums
       -M  count enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for 'count'  bytes  from
       the  beginning of a track. This was introduced for quick comparisons of

   Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
       -paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting audio sectors. Monty's
       library is used with the following default options:


       for  details  see  Monty's libparanoia documentation.  In this case the
       option -P has no effect.

   Do linear or overlapping reading of sectors
       (This applies unless option -paranoia is used.)  -P  sectors  sets  the
       given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for jitter correc‐
       tion. Two cases are to be distinguished. For nonzero values, some  sec‐
       tors  are  read  twice  to  enable cdda2wav's jitter correction.  If an
       argument of zero is given, no  overlap  sampling  will  be  used.   For
       nonzero overlap sectors cdda2wav dynamically adjusts the setting during
       sampling (like cdparanoia does).  If no match can  be  found,  cdda2wav
       retries the read with an increased overlap.  If the amount of jitter is
       lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces the overlap
       setting,  resulting  in a higher reading speed.  The argument given has
       to be lower than the total number of sectors per request (see option -n
       below).   Cdda2wav  will  check this setting and issues a error message
       otherwise.  The case of zero sectors is nice on low load situations  or
       errorfree (perfect) cdrom drives and perfect (unscratched) audio cds.

   Set the transfer size
       -n   sectors  will  set  the transfer size to the specified sectors per

   Set number of ring buffer elements
       -l  buffers will allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.

   Set endianess of input samples
       -C  endianess will override the default settings of the  input  format.
       Endianess  can  be set explicitly to "little", "big" or "machine" or to
       the automatic endianess detection based on voting with "guess".

   Set endianess of output samples
       -E  endianess (endianess can be  "little",  "big"  or  "machine")  will
       override the default settings of the output format.

   Verbose option
       -v   itemlist  prints more information. A list allows selection of dif‐
       ferent information items.

       help      Print a summary of possible members of the diffopts list.

       !         Invert the meaning of  the  following  string.  No  comma  is
                 needed after the exclamation mark.

       not       Invert  the  meaning of all members in the diffopts list i.e.
                 exclude all present options from an  initially  complete  set
                 compare list.  When using csh(1) you might have problems with
                 !  due to its strange parser.  This  is  why  the  not  alias

       disable   disables verbosity

       all       all information is given

       toc       displays the table of contents

       summary   displays a summary of recording parameters

       indices   invokes  the  index  scanner  and displays start positions of

       catalog   retrieves and displays a media catalog number

       trackid   retrieves and displays international standard recording codes

       sectors   displays track start positions in absolute sector notation

       To combine several requests just list  the  suboptions  separated  with

   The table of contents
       The  display  will show the table of contents with number of tracks and
       total time  (displayed  in  mm:ss.hh  format,  mm=minutes,  ss=seconds,
       hh=rounded  1/100  seconds).   The following list displays track number
       and track time for each entry.  The summary  gives  a  line  per  track
       describing the type of the track.

                   track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

       The  track  column  holds  the track number.  preemphasis shows if that
       track has been given a non linear frequency response.   NOTE:  You  can
       undo  this effect with the -T option.  copy-permitted indicates if this
       track is allowed to copy.  tracktype can be data or audio. On  multime‐
       dia  CDs  (except  hidden  track  CDs)  both of them should be present.
       channels is defined for audio tracks only. There can  be  two  or  four

   No file output
       -N this debugging option switches off writing to a file.

   No infofile generation
       -H this option switches off creation of an info file and a cddb file.

   Generation of simple output for gui frontends
       -g  this  option switches on simple line formatting, which is needed to
       support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).

   Verbose SCSI logging
       -V this option switches on logging of SCSI commands. This will  produce
       a lot of output (when SCSI devices are being used).  This is needed for
       debugging purposes. The format is the  same  as  being  used  with  the
       cdrecord program, see cdrecord(1) for more information.

   Quiet option
       -q  suppresses  all  screen output except error messages.  That reduces
       cpu time resources.

   Just show information option
       -J does not write a file, it only prints  information  about  the  disc
       (depending on the -v option). This is just for information purposes.

CDDBP support
   Lookup album and track titles option
       -L   cddbp mode Cdda2wav tries to retrieve performer, album-, and track
       titles  from  a  cddbp  server.  The  default  server  right   now   is
       ''.   It  is  planned  to  have  more control over the
       server handling later.  The parameter defines how multiple entries  are

       0      interactive mode, the user chooses one of the entries.

       1      take the first entry without asking.

   Set server for title lookups
       cddbp-server   servername When using -L or -cddb, the server being con‐
       tacted can be set with this option.

   Set portnumber for title lookups
       cddbp-port  portnumber When using -L or -cddb, the  server  port  being
       contacted can be set with this option.

       Don't  create  samples  you cannot read. First check your sample player
       software and sound card hardware. I experienced problems with very  low
       sample  rates  (stereo <= 1575 Hz, mono <= 3675 Hz) when trying to play
       them with standard WAV players for sound blaster (maybe  they  are  not
       legal  in  WAV  format).  Most  CD-Writers insist on audio samples in a
       bigendian format.  Now cdda2wav supports the -E   endianess  option  to
       control the endianess of the written samples.

       If  your hardware is fast enough to run cdda2wav uninterrupted and your
       CD drive is one of the 'perfect' ones, you will gain speed when switch‐
       ing all overlap sampling off with the -P  0 option. Further fine tuning
       can be done with the -n  sectors option. You can specify how much  sec‐
       tors should be requested in one go.

       Cdda2wav  supports  pipes.   Use a filename of - to let cdda2wav output
       its samples to standard output.

       Conversion to other sound formats is possible  using  the  sox  program
       package  (it  should no longer be necessary to use sox -x to change the
       byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).

       If you want to sample more than one track into different files  in  one
       run, this is currently possible with the -B option. When recording time
       exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.

       Cdda2wav can generate a lot of files for various purposes.

   Audio files:
       There are audio files containing samples with default extensions  .wav,
       .au,  .aifc,  .aiff,  and  .cdr according to the selected sound format.
       These files are not generated when option (-N) is given. Multiple files
       may  be written when the bulk copy option (-B) is used. Individual file
       names can be given as arguments. If the number of file names  given  is
       sufficient  to  cover all included audio tracks, the file names will be
       used verbatim.  Otherwise, if there are  less  file  names  than  files
       needed  to  write the included tracks, the part of the file name before
       the extension is extended with '_dd' where dd  represents  the  current
       track number.

   Cddb and Cdindex files:
       If  cdda2wav  detects  cd-extra or cd-text (album/track) title informa‐
       tion, then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are generated unless  sup‐
       pressed  by the option -H.  They contain suitable formatted entries for
       submission to audio cd track title databases in the Internet. The CDIN‐
       DEX  and CDDB(tm) systems are currently supported. For more information
       please visit and

   Inf files:
       The inf files describe the sample files and the part of the audio cd it
       was  taken from. They are a means to transfer information to a cd burn‐
       ing program like cdrecord. For example, if the original  audio  cd  had
       pre-emphasis enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove the pre-emphasis, then
       the inf file has pre-emphasis not set (since the audio  file  does  not
       have  it  anymore),  while the .cddb and the .cdindex have pre-emphasis
       set as the original does.

       IMPORTANT: it is prohibited to sell copies of copyrighted  material  by
       noncopyright  holders. This program may not be used to circumvent copy‐
       rights.  The user acknowledges this constraint when using the software.

       The index scanner may give timeouts.

       The resampling (rate conversion code)  uses  polynomial  interpolation,
       which is not optimal.

       Cdda2wav should use threads.

       Thanks  go to Project MODE ( and Fraunhofer Insti‐
       tut fuer integrierte Schaltungen (FhG-IIS) ( for
       financial  support.  Plextor Europe and Ricoh Japan provided cdrom disk
       drives and cd burners which helped a  lot  to  develop  this  software.
       Rammi  has  helped a lot with the debugging and showed a lot of stamina
       when hearing 100 times the first 16 seconds of the first track  of  the
       Krupps  CD.   Libparanoia contributed by Monty (Christopher Montgomery)

       Heiko Eissfeldt (1993-2004)


       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin


       The interfaces provided by cdda2wav are designed for long term  stabil‐
       ity.   As  cdda2wav  depends  on  interfaces provided by the underlying
       operating system, the stability of the interfaces offered  by  cdda2wav
       depends  on  the  interface  stability  of the OS interfaces.  Modified
       interfaces in the OS may enforce modified interfaces in cdda2wav.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       box; cbp-1 | cbp-1 l | l .  ATTRIBUTE TYPE ATTRIBUTE VALUE = Availabil‐
       ity   media/cdrtools = Stability Uncommitted

       Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at   The  original   community
       source   was   downloaded  from‐

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at

                                  Version 3.0                      CDDA2WAV(1)
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